Foreclosing the Future

Foreclosing the Future

The World Bank and the Politics of Environmental Destruction

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Bruce Rich

320 pages pages | 6 X 9 | References

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim has vowed that his institution will fight poverty and climate change, a claim that World Bank presidents have made for two decades. But if worldwide protests and reams of damning internal reports are any indication, too often it does just the opposite. By funding development projects and programs that warm the planet and destroy critical natural resources on which the poor depend, the Bank has been hurting the very people it claims to serve. What explains this blatant contradiction?

If anyone has the answer, it is arguably Bruce Rich—a lawyer and expert in public international finance who has for the last three decades studied the Bank’s institutional contortions, the real-world consequences of its lending, and the politics of the global environmental crisis. What emerges from the bureaucratic dust is a disturbing and gripping story of corruption, larger-than-life personalities, perverse incentives, and institutional amnesia. The World Bank is the Vatican of development finance, and its dysfunction plays out as a reflection of the political hypocrisies and failures of governance of its 188 member countries.

Foreclosing the Future shows how the Bank’s failure to address the challenges of the 21st Century has implications for everyone in an increasingly interdependent world. Rich depicts how the World Bank is a microcosm of global political and economic trends—powerful forces that threaten both environmental and social ruin. Rich shows how the Bank has reinforced these  forces, undercutting the most idealistic attempts at alleviating poverty and sustaining the environment, and damaging the lives of millions. Readers will see global politics on an increasingly crowded planet as they never have before—and come to understand the changes necessary if the World Bank is ever to achieve its mission.

"deeply-researched and filled with heretofore publicly unavailable Bank documents.... His book argues thoroughly and methodically that the Bank's permissive attitude towards environmental destruction has continued, if not worsened, in the past decade."

The New Republic

"Rich's most valuable insights concern how often the World Bank has been informed ? by its own internal review boards, no less ? that its policies have not reduced poverty so much as hastened environmental destruction and enabled corruption by public officials in developing nations. Nevertheless, the bank has gone on 'pushing money out the door'?giving large loans that make it appear to be moving heaven and earth on behalf of the poor but in practice often do the opposite."

OnEarth

"...offers a passionate and sharp-tongued but well-informed analysis. Rich doesn't spare the World Bank management with critique, but is aware that the buck doesn't stop there."

Huffington Post

"Foreclosing the Future carefully documents the World Bank's adherence to 'pushing the money out the door,' refusing to learn from past mistakes, tolerating corruption, trashing the planet, and evicting the poor?all in devout service to a mismeasure of wealth. Bruce Rich gives a tragic, honest, and well-argued account of the decline of a once-promising institution."

Herman Daly, Professor Emeritus, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland

"A compelling account of the past two decades of global environmental politics as played out in the world's leading development institution. Foreclosing the Future underscores that the need for public scrutiny of international financial institutions is as great as ever."

Senator Tom Udall, NM, Chair, Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere & Global Narcotics Affairs

"Bruch Rich paints a vivid picture of the environmental damage that civic groups, governments, corporations, and the multinational lending sector have all grappled with over the past years."

Daniel Kammen, Distinguished Professor of Energy, University of California, Berkeley

"The strength of the book, however, is its dissection of the Bank's approach to climate change."

Financial Times

"As well as presenting powerful arguments for reform, the book is crammed full of facts about the Bank and international development nance. It also documents two decades of civil society campaigns to hold the Bank accountable and promote reform. For these reasons, it will be of great interest to civil society activists and campaigners in the North and South."

Forest Peoples Programme

"...this book offers an important pooling of evidence that should guide both scholars and practitioners in their understanding of and work with development in general and the World Bank specifically. Rich's volume is an important addition to the conversation on the role and impact of the World Bank and should receive careful and serious attention in efforts to reform the Bank and truly alleviate global poverty while preserving the world in which all people must live."

Poverty & Public Policy

"Based on his expertise and numerous case studies, as well as internal and external reports and evaluations, Rich gives a compelling account of the past 20 years of global of global environmental politics played out in the world's leading developmental institutions."

CHOICE
Preface

 

Chapter 1. Tiger Talk

Chapter 2. Present at the Creation

Chapter 3. "I Can Change the Approval Culture to an Effectiveness Culture"

Chapter 4. High Risk, High Reward

Chapter 5. The Logic Was Textbook Perfect

Chapter 6. Backwards into the Future

Chapter 7. The Brief, Broken Presidency of Paul Wolfowitz

Chapter 8. The Carbon Caravan

Chapter 9. A Market Like No Other

Chapter 10. Financializing Development

Chapter 11. Dying for Growth

Chapter 12. What Does It Take?

 

Notes

Index


 

Erratum: CERs (pp. xv, 142, 163, 292), issued under the Kytoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, are Certified Emission Reductions, not Certified Emission Rights.

Notes

Chapter 1 Notes

1. World Bank Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, Global Tiger Recovery Program 2010?2022 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), iv.

2. Fred Weir, ?Putin Praises DiCaprio as ?Real Man? after Harrowing Journey to Tiger Summit,? Christian Science Monitor, November 24, 2010. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2010/1124/Putin-praises-DiCaprio-as-real-man-after-harrowing-journey-to-tiger-summit

3. Shaun Walker, ?DeCaprio, Putin, and the All-Star Plot to Save Tigers,? The Independent (UK), November 25, 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/dicaprio-putin-and-the-allstar-plot-to-save-tigers-2143085.html

4. Ibid.

5. Walker, ?DiCaprio, Putin, and the All-Star Plot to Save Tigers.?

6. Jonathan Watts, ?Putin May Be the Tiger?s Champion, but China Will Decide the Species? Future: Premier Wen?s Vague Words at the Tiger Summit Do Little to Inspire Confidence in the Country That Drives a Gruesome Trade,? The Guardian, Environment Blog, November 23, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/nov/23/putin-tiger-china-premier-wen

7. Caroline Fraser, ?As Tigers Near Extinction, A Last-Ditch Strategy Emerges,? Yale Environment 360, November 15, 2010. http://e360.yale.edu/feature/as_tigers_near_extinction_the_world_bank_and_environmental_groups_craft_last-ditch_strategy/2339/

8. ?New $350-Million Plan to Save the Tiger?But Will It Work?,? WildlifeExtra.com, Wild Travel, n.d.

www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/tiger-summit.html#cr

9. Technically the World Bank Group also includes a fifth institution, the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. As the name indicates, this is an arbitration panel, not a financial lending, insurance, or investment agency, as are the IBRD, IDA, IFC, and MIGA.

10. Voting shares differ, though, for the different affiliates, e.g., in the IBRD the United States has 16.09 percent, Japan 9.62 percent, Germany 4.41 percent, and the United Kingdom and France 4.22 percent each. In IDA the U.S. share is 11.09 percent, followed by 8.74 percent for Japan, 5.68 percent for Germany, 5.46 percent for the United Kingdom, and 3.86 percent for France. See: The World Bank, ?Executive Directors and Their Voting Power, June 30, 2011,?Annual Report 2011: Year in Review (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2011). At the IFC the United States has 24.03 percent of the voting shares, followed by Japan, Germany, France and the United Kingdom with 5.96 percent, 5.44 percent, 5.11 percent, and 5.11 percent, respectively. See: International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group, I Am Opportunity?IFC Annual Report 2011 (Washington, DC: IFC, 2011), 91; International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group, I Am Opportunity IFC Annual Report 2011 (Washington, DC: IFC, 2011).

http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/CORP_EXT_Content/IFC_External_Corporate_Site/Annual+Report/2011+Printed+Report/AR_PrintedReport/

11. See: World Bank Group website, Worldbank.org.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html

12 World Bank, Annual Report 2011, 3?4.

13. ?Rights groups say 19 journalists have been victims of contract killings in Russia since 2000, the year Putin was first elected president, and none of the masterminds of the murders has been jailed.? See: Timothy Heritage, ?Analysis: Journalist?s Murder a Test Case for Russia?s Putin,? Reuters, October 6, 2011.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/06/us-russia-politkovskaya-idUSTRE7954SK20111006

14. Gary Peach, ?Greenpeace Decries Russian PM?s Environmental Record over Past Decade,? Associated Press, June 4, 2010.

http://www.therecord.com/print/article/429600

15. Claudia Dreifus, ?Zoologist Gives a Voice to Big Cats in the Wilderness,? New York Times, Science Section, December 18, 2007.

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/18/science/18conv.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Organizations/W/Wildlife%20Conservation%20Society

16. Patrick Barkham, ?One Last Chance: Can We Save the Tiger?,? The Guardian, November 9, 2010.

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/nov/09/last-chance-to-save-the-tiger

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Peter Foster, ?Poachers Empty Indian Wildlife Park of Tigers,? Telegraph, London, April 9, 2005; Fraser, ?As Tigers Near Extinction.?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/1487485/Poachers-empty-Indian-wildlife-park-of-tigers.html

21. Rachna Singh, ?Illegal Mining Threatens Sariska,? Times of India, October 13, 2010.

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-10-13/jaipur/28227927_1_illegal-mining-mine-owners-jamwa-ramgarh

22. Kathy Lilly, ?Members of Russian Summit Have Diverging Views but United Goal: Saving the Tiger,? Washington Post, November 20, 2010.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/19/AR2010111903652.html?nav=emailpage

23. Marwaan Macan-Marker, ?World Bank Aims to Earn Stripes through Tiger Summit,? Online Asia Times, January 26, 2010.

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/LA26Ae01.html

24. For more on the Operations Evaluation Department, see: Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1994), 171?72.

25. Richard Carlos Worden and Colin Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank?Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, Evaluation Brief 12 (Washington, DC: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), 2011), x.

26. Ibid., 17. The three projects in question were so-called ICDPs?Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. The concept of combining rural development with conservation dates back to the mid-1980s.

27. Ibid., xi.

28. See, e.g.: Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008). All of these issues will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters.

29. World Bank Annual Report, 2011, IBRD and IDA Cumulative Lending by Country/Fiscal 1945?2011.

30. Independent People?s Tribunal on the World Bank in India, Findings of the Jury (New Delhi: Shivaam Sundaram, September 11, 2008), 2, 26?27. Two non-Indians were also on the jury: Alejandro Nadal, professor of economics and coordinator of the Science and Technology Program at El Colegio de Mexico, and the author.

www.worldbanktribunal.org

31. Ibid., 11, 17, 23.

32. Herman Daly, interview with Martin Eierman, ?We Need a Crisis, and a Change of Values,? The European, September 5, 2011.

http://www.theeuropean-magazine.com/356-daly/357-the-end-of-growth

33. William Easterly, The Elusive Quest for Growth (Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 2011).

34. William Easterly, ?The Failure of Development: In Spite of Billions of Dollars Spent on Aid to Poor Countries, There Has Been No Real Progress, says William E,? Financial Times, USA Edition, July 4, 2001.

35. William Easterly, ?The Ideology of Development,? Foreign Policy, July-August 2007.

http://www.kursusinfo.life.ku.dk/Kurser/290061/presentation/~/media/Kurser/FOI/290061/Easterly%20W%20The%20Ideology%20of%20Development.ashx

36. Quoted in Vincent McElhinny, ?Troubling Implications for Investment Lending Reform,? Bank Information Center IFI INFO Brief, October 2010.

http://www.bicusa.org/en/Page.Publications.aspx

37. Ibid.

38. UK Parliament, House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee?Fifth Report: The Impact of UK Overseas Aid on Environmental Protection and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (London: UK Parliament, June 29, 2011).

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmenvaud/710/...

39. Ibid., paragraph 44.

40. UK Parliament, Report Published on Impact of Overseas Aid on Environmental Protection,? June 29, 2011.

http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-committee/news/report-published-the-impact-of-uk-overseas-aid-on-environmental-protection-and-climate-change-adaptation-and-mitigation/

41. World Bank Annual Report 2011, 11?12.

42. UK Parliament, Environmental Audit Committee?Fifth Report, paragraph 49.

43. Heike Mainhardt-Gibbs, ?World Bank Group Energy Sector Financing Update,? Bank Information Center, November 2010.

44. Ibid.

45. Zachary Shahan, ?World Bank Approves $3B for World?s 4th Largest Coal Power Plant,? Ecopolitology, April 10, 2010.

http://ecopolitology.org/2010/04/10/world-bank-oks-3b-for-worlds-4th-largest-coal-power-plant/

46. UK Parliament, Environmental Audit Committee?Fifth Report, paragraph 60.

47. Ibid., 28.

48. Ibid., 27.

49. Ibid., 58.

50. Ibid., xvi.

51. The actual increase in the voting share for borrowing, developing countries was modest: a shift of 4.6 percent in voting shares for borrowers in International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which lends to all but the poorest countries (concentrated mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa), to 47.2 percent; as in the past, rich country donors still control the voting majority. See: World Bank, Annual Report 2011, 28. But China?s voting share rose to 4.42 percent, third behind the United States (16.4 percent) and Japan (6.84 percent). (Ibid., ?Executive Directors and Alternates of the World Bank and Their Voting Power, June 30, 2011.?) The political clout of China, India, and Brazil on the Bank?s board is not just a function of voting shares, but of their fast-growing influence in the global economy and in other international fora such as the G20.

52. See, e.g.: Sebastian Mallaby, The World?s Banker: A Study of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations (New York: Penguin, 2004). These issues are discussed in later chapters.

53. The Bank?s IEG examined a number of these issues in a 2011 report: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Safeguards and Sustainability Policies in a Changing World (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010). This IEG report and others will be discussed in subsequent chapters.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSAFANDSUS/Resources/Safeguards_eval.pdf

54. World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Global Monitoring Report 2008: MDGs and the Environment (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008), 5, 6.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGLOMONREP2008/Resources/4737994-1207342962709/8944_Web_PDF.pdf

55. Independent Tribunal, Findings, 23.

56. Ibid.,19. It is important to note that the charge is not that the Bank is bribing officials to take certain decisions, but that, from working at the Bank and IMF, they benefit personally and professionally by articulating and carrying out the policies of these institutions, so there are few incentives to raise doubts or questions. After five years as a full staff member at the World Bank or the IMF, an Indian official?or any other professional from a developing nation?vests in the institution?s pension program, which pays a benefit for life that is oftentimes as great as or greater than their government salary when they return to their former jobs.

57. Fraser, As Tigers Near Extinction.

58. Watts, ?Putin May Be the Tiger?s Champion.?

59. United Nations Secretary-General, ?Twentieth-Century Model ?A Global Suicide Pact,? Secretary-General Tells World Economic Forum Session on Redefining Sustainable Development,? SG/SM/13372, EC/186,ENV/DEV/1182 (New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, January 28, 2011).

http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sgsm13372.doc.htm

60. Ibid.

 

Chapter 2 Notes

1. The U.S. Government, during the administration of President Jimmy Carter, was a pioneer in identifying these global environmental concerns already in the late 1970s. Sadly, the Carter administration was perhaps the high point of American international environmental leadership.

2. Address of Barber B. Conable, President, World Bank and International Finance Corporation, to the World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, May 5, 1987 (printed version of the speech released to the press). A detailed description of the events leading up to the Bank?s first wave of environmental reforms, and of major aspects of the reforms themselves, can be found in Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), 107?81.

3. World Bank, The Forest Sector: A World Bank Policy Paper (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1991), 21?22. See also: Uma Lele et al., The World Bank Forest Strategy: Striking the Right Balance (Washington, DC: World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, 2000), 2?4.

http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/b57456d58aba40e585256ad400736404/f7d852631e3a2b25852569a800654b8c/$FILE/forestry.pdf

4. Robert Wade, ?Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1970?1995,? in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 2: Perspectives, ed. Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), 612.

The figures on increases in Bank staff, funding for environmental projects and research etc. are from Wade, 612.

5. Ibid., 711.

6. Ibid., 612.

7. Ibid.

8. Korinna Horta, Robin Round, and Zoe Young, ?The Global Environment Facility: The First Ten Years?Growing Pains or Inherent Flaws?? report by Environmental Defense and Halifax Initiative, August 2002, 4.

http://www.newgreenorder.info/briefings.htm

9. Wade, 679.

10. Charlotte Streck, ?The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,? UN Vision Project on Global Policy Networks, 10. (See also: Charlotte Streck, ?The Global Environment Facility: A Role Model for International Governance?? Global Environmental Politics 1, no. 2, 71?94.)

http://www.globalpublicpolicy.net

11. Horta et al., 5.

12. See: Gareth Porter et al., Study of GEF?s Overall Performance, First Overall Performance Study, OPS1 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility, 1999), 69.

http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/1915

13. RESOLVE, Inc., ?Issues Assessment: Incremental Cost Determination for GEF-Funded Projects,? in Global Environment Facility, GEF Council, Progress on Incremental Costs, GEF/C.12.If.4, September 14, 1998, 3, 4, 7; see also: Porter, Study of GEF?s Overall Performance, 70?71.

http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/documents/GEF.C.12.Inf_.4.pdf

http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/1915

14. Streck, ?The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,? 20.

15. The projects are discussed at length in Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 178?80.

16. Susan George, quoted in Tom Athanasiou, Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998), 283.

17. See, for example, Wade, 622.

18. See discussion in Rich, 243.

19. For a good description of the Bank?s role in Stockholm and immediately afterwards, see Wade, 620?23.

20. Wade, 672.

21. Streck, ?The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,? 23.

22. See: GEP website, thegef.org.

http://www.thegef.org/gef/instrument

23. See: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 261.

24. United Nations Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development (UNCED), Agenda 21, chap. 33, paragraphs 13, 18.

http://www.un-documents.net/a21-33.htm

25. International Monetary Fund, IMF Survey, vol. 29, issue 8 (2000), 172.

26. See, e.g.: United Nations Development Programme, ?The Millennium Development Goals: Eight Goals for 2015?; the World Bank?s commitment to the MDGs can be found on its website, Worldbank.org.

http://www.beta.undp.org/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html

http://www.worldbank.org/mdgs

27. Rich, 151, 250.

28. Arundhati Roy, ?The Greater Common Good,? April 1999, Narmada.org.

http://www.narmada.org/gcg/gcg.html

29. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review, Chairman, Bradford Morse; Deputy Chairman, Thomas Berger (Ottawa: Resource Future International, 1992), 226, 233?34.

30. Ibid., 53.

31. Ibid., 36.

32. Willi A. Wapenhans et al., ?Report of the Portfolio Management Task Force, July 1, 1992? (internal World Bank document), 12, 14.

33. ?Statement of E. Patrick Coady, U.S. Executive Director, to an Executive Board Seminar, May 4, 1993? (U.S. Treasury Department, typewritten document, 4 pages).

34. For example, action number 15??produce report on Bank?s environmental policies and activities??referred to a public relations environment report the Bank had been already issuing for three years.

35. Action 85 was ?provide leadership in implementing the reform plan? and action 86 was ?assess implementation progress.?

36. Willi A. Wapenhans, ?Efficiency and Effectiveness: Is the World Bank Group Prepared for the Task Ahead?? in Bretton Woods Commission, Bretton Woods: Looking to the Future (Washington, DC: Bretton Woods Commission, July 1994), note 22, C-304.

37. Wade, 704.

38. For an in-depth discussion of the Morse Commission and the Bank?s subsequent withdrawal from the project, see: Wade, 699?709; see also: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 249?54, 301?2; Maartje Van Putten, Policing the Banks: Accountability Mechanisms and the Financial Sector (Montreal, QC, and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queens University Press, 2008), 67?74.

39. World Bank, ?Resolution No. 93-10, Resolution No. IDA No. 93-10, September 22, 1993, The World Bank Inspection Panel,? paragraph 12, in Ibrahim F. I. Shihata, The World Bank Inspection Panel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 129.

40. Similar inspection panels, or inspection functions, were established in the other multilateral development banks, as well as in at least three public export credit and investment insurance agencies in recent years, the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Canadian Export Development Corporation (EDC), and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC).

41. See: Wade, 727?28; and see especially: Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 74?81.

42. Interview with Barney Frank, in Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 342?45.

43. Ibid.

44. Horta et al., 13?14.

45. Leif Christoffersen et al., GEF OPS2, 59.

46. Porter et al., GEF OPS 1, xv.

47. Global Environment Facility, GEF Annual Report 2010, 9?10.

http://www.thegef.org/gef/pubs/gef-annual-report-2010

48. Heike Mainhardt-Gibbs, ?World Bank Group Energy Sector Financing Update,? Bank Information Center, November 2010, bicusa.org.

http://www.bicusa.org/en/Document.102339.aspx

49. See discussion of the World Bank/GEF Kena Tana River Primate Reserve project in Horta et al., 20?21.

50. World Bank and United Nations Development Program, Reducing Threats to Protected Areas: Lessons from the Field (Washington, DC, and New York: World Bank and United Nations Development Program, 2007), 66.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTBIODIVERSITY/Resources/ReducingThreats-web.pdf

51. Ibid., 65?66.

52. Richard Carlos Worden and Colin Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank?Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, Evaluation Brief 12 (Washington, DC: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group [IEG], 2011), 17, 16.

http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/C9166A787CE4EA8B852578850055C058/$file/eval_brief_tigers.pdf

53. Global Environment Facility/World Bank, ?Proposal for Review: India Ecodevelopment Project,? 1, 4?5 (on Gefonline.org, see link to pdf of ?Project Document for WP?).

http://gefonline.org/projectDetailsSQL.cfm?projID=84

54. Worden and Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank?Funded Projects, 16.

55. Ibid.

56. Independent People?s Tribunal on the World Bank in India, Findings of the Jury (New Delhi: Shivaam Sundaram, September 11, 2008), 16?17.

57. P. Devullu et al., ?Indigenous and Tribal Communities, Biodiversity Conservation and the Global Environment Facility in India: General Overview and a Case Study of People?s Perspectives of the India Ecodevelopment Project,? May 2, 2005, 1.

http://www.forestpeoples.org/region/india/publication/2010/indigenous-and-tribal-communities-biodiversity-conservation-and-global

58. Ibid.

59. See complaint and eligibility for inspection documents at Worldbank.org.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/0,,contentMDK:22515703~pagePK:64129751~piPK:64128378~theSitePK:380794,00.html

60. Horta et al., 21?22.

61. Ibid.

62. World Bank, ?The Inspection Panel Report and Recommendation on Request for Inspection India: Ecodevelopment Project, Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park,? October 21, 1998, 29, paragraph 86.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/0,,contentMDK:22515703~pagePK:64129751~piPK:64128378~theSitePK:380794,00.html

63. Ibid., 13, paragraph 35.

64. For an interesting case study of the complex factors at work undermining the success of the World Bank India Ecodevelopment Project in another one of the seven protected areas, see: Lucie Dejouhanet, ?Participatory Eco-Development in Question: The Case of the Parmbikulum Wildlife Sanctuary in Southern India,? Journal of Alpine Research 98, no. 1 (2010).

http://rga.revues.org/index1146.html#tocto1n4

65. Ross Hughs and Fiona Flinton, Integrating Conservation and Development Experience: A Review and Bibliography of the ICDP Literature (London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 2001), 7.

http://www.ucc.ie/famine/GCD/ICDP_sec.pdf

66. Kaavya Varma, ?The Asiatic Lion and the Maldharvis of Gir Forest,? 158, citing T. O. McShane and S. A. Newby, ?Expecting the Unattainable: The Assumptions behind ICDPs,? in T. O. McShane and M. P. Wells, eds., Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work: Towards More Effective Conservation and Development (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 49?74.

67. See, for example, the Bank Management Comments, in Worden and Reese, IEG Review of 20 World Bank?Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, xiii-xvn: ?Management notes that the median year of concept review of the 20 reviewed projects is 1997. Some of the design issues noted in the IEG review have been previously identified in other reviews and subsequently addressed. . . .? Nevertheless, ?at the same time management recognizes that there is scope for improvement in the monitoring and reporting on environmental impacts during project implementation.? And, yes, ?Management appreciates the advice that the Bank should further mainstream biodiversity into sectors that can have significant impacts on biodiversity, such as infrastructure and rural development. Management agrees that mainstreaming biodiversity considerations into the design of Bank-supported projects to complement focused stand-alone biodiversity conservation efforts is key to continue advancing this agenda through proactive support to improve environmental aspects of Bank-supported projects.?

68. Ibid., 5.

69. Nevertheless, the report does put forth as one of its general recommendations that better assessment of the real threats to protected areas is needed.

70. World Bank internal memo, March 26, 1993, quoted in Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008), 28.

71. Ibid., 44?45.

72. Richard Webb, ?Demotion and Rededication: 1981 to the Mid-1990s,? in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 2: History, ed. Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), 338.

73. S. Guhan, ?The World Bank?s Lending to South Asia,? in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 1, 382?82.

74. Wade, 733?34.

 

Chapter 3 Notes

1. World Bank, ?Meeting of President Wolfensohn with Senior Management, March 12, 1996,? internal World Bank document, 12.

2. World Bank, ?Wolfensohn Lays Out Future Direction of World Bank,? News Release No. 96/S21, October 10, 1995.

3. Michael Holman, Patti Walmeir, and Robert Chote,? World Bank Chief Accuses Staff of Resisting Reforms,? Financial Times, March 29, 1996, 1.

4. Michael Holman and Patti Waldmeir, ?World Bank Chief?s Cry from the Heart,? Financial Times, March 29, 1996, 4.

5. James D. Wolfensohn, letter to World Bank staff, June 1, 1995, as reported by Al Kamen, ?Keep It in the Family,? Washington Post, June 9, 1995.

6. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), 261?62.

7. Ibid., 269.

8. Garry Evans, ?The World According to Wolfensohn,? interview, Euromoney, September 1995, 56.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., 22?23.

11. For example, Charles H. Antholt, a Bank senior agriculturist, concluded in a 1992 study that ?without a doubt, T&V is widely considered ineffective,? citing numerous examples of Bank-supported programs in Pakistan, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Malaysia. He noted that the T&V approach ?has tended to further institutionalize [agricultural] extension?s top-down hierarchy and centralized management? and that its emphasis on hiring large numbers of extension staff ?may have undermined [the] public sector?s long-term sustainability unintentionally? through ?the unacceptable strain . . . it puts on public resources.? See: Charles H. Antholt, ?Relevancy, Responsiveness and Cost-Effectiveness: Issues for Agricultural Extension in the 21st Century? (unpublished paper), July 1992.

12. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, Project Performance Audit Report, Kenya National Extension Project (Credit 1387-KE), draft report (Washington, DC: World Bank, January 10, 1996), 14.

13. See: Edward W. Cronin, A Natural History of the World?s Deepest Valley (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979).

14. Arun Concerned Group, Request for Inspection, World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, October 24, 1994, 8; available on World Bank website.

15. Ibid., 7; see also: Lori Udall, ?Trampling on Nepal,? Multinational Monitor 16, no. 12 (December 1994).

http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1994/12/mm1294_08.html

16. Edward W. Cronin, A Natural History of the World?s Deepest Valley.

17. Arun Concerned Group, Request for Inspection, 2.

18. Eduardo Lachica, ?Environmentalists Are Opposing Plans of World Bank to Build Dam in Nepal,? Wall Street Journal, September 12, 1994.

19. Korinna Horta, ?Monster of the Himalayas,? Washington Post, November 11, 1994, C4.

20. Martin Karcher, interview with Environmental Defense Fund concerning the Nepal Arun III Hydroelectric Project, September 9, 1994.

21. Ibid.

22. German Federal Audit Office, ?FZ-Massnahme mit Nepal; Wasserkraftwerk (WKW) Arun III,? December 19, 1994, 2, 5.

23. Daniel D. Bradlow, ?A Test Case for the World Bank,? American University Journal of International Law and Policy 11, no. 2 (1996): 266.

24. World Bank, ?World Bank and Nepal to Develop Energy Alternatives to Arun Project,? press release, August 4, 1994. See also: Paul Lewis, ?World Bank Cancels Nepal Project Loan,? New York Times, August 16, 1995; Paul Lewis, ?World Bank Ends Heyday of the Big Project Loan,? International Herald Tribune, August 17, 1995, 1.

25. Richard E. Bissell, ?The Arun III Hydropower Project, Nepal,? in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003), 25?45, 31.

26. Ibid., 40. Also see discussion in Lori Udall, ?The World Bank and Public Accountability: Has Anything Changed?? in The Struggle for Accountability: The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge, MA, and London, UK: MIT Press, 1998), 391?436, 416?21.

27. World Bank, ?Meeting of President Wolfensohn with Senior Management, March 12, 1996,? internal World Bank document, 12.

28. Daniel J. Shepard, ?Donor Countries Back Wolfensohn Debt-Relief Plan, but Financing Still a Problem,? Earth Summit Times, September 29, 1996, 1; Bread for the World Institute, ?The Debt Initiative: Sham or Historic Breakthrough?? News and Notices for World Bank Watchers, no. 15, November 1996, 12?14.

29. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, OED Participation Process Review, draft report, April 21, 1999, 12.

30. Ibid., 27?28, 24?25.

31. World Bank, Office Memorandum, ?Portfolio Improvement Program: An Update,? November 4, 1996.

32. ?Our experiences with the Inspection Panel are teaching us that we have to be increasingly careful in setting policy that we are able to implement in practice.? Myrna Alexander, OPRDR, office memorandum to various World Bank staff, March 15, 1996.

33. World Bank, ?Guidance for Communicating the Compact,? internal document for managers, February 1997, World Bank Vice Presidency for External Affairs, 4.

34. Patti Waldmeir, ?World Bank Defends $570 Million Restructure Plan,? Financial Times, February 21, 1997, 6.

35. World Bank, ?Meeting with Jean-Francois Rischard 10/21/96,? internal staff minutes, 2; the Bank?s FY 1996 internal administrative budget was $733 million ($842 million for FY 1995). See: World Bank, Annual Report 1996 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1996), 170.

36. World Bank, ?Questions and Answers About the Networks,? internal staff document, September 16, 1996, 2.

37. Robert Hunter Wade, ?The U.S. Role in the Malaise at the World Bank: Get Up, Gulliver!? paper prepared for the G-24, 2001, also presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 22.

38. World Bank, ?Meeting with Jean-Francois Rischard 10/21/96 Summary,? 9.

39. Wade, ?The U.S. Role in the Malaise at the World Bank,? 2.

40. World Bank Quality Assurance Group, Portfolio Improvement Program, ?Portfolio Improvement Program: Reviews of Sector Portfolios and Lending Instruments: A Synthesis,? draft internal report, April 22, 1997, 15.

41. Ibid., 15.

42. World Bank, ?Portfolio Improvement Program, Reviews of Sector Portfolios and Lending Instruments,? 20.

43. Ibid., 20?21.

44. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, Effectiveness of Environmental Assessments and National Environmental Action Plans: A Process Study, Report No. 15835 (Washington, DC: World Bank, June 29, 1996), 24, 25, 6?7, 38.

45. Ibid., 6.

46. Ibid., 37.

47. Ibid., 14.

48. Ibid., 8.

49. Ibid., 78.

50. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life, 295.

51. Michelle Celarier, ?The Search for the Smoking Gun,? Euromoney, September 1996, 49?52.

52. World Bank/International Monetary Fund 1996 Annual Meetings, Press Release no. 3, Address by James D. Wolfensohn to the Board of Governors of the World Bank Group, at the Joint Annual Discussion, October 1, 1996, 5; Kevin Rafferty, ?Calls to Root Out Cancer of Corruption,? Emerging Markets, October 2, 1996, 1.

53. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life, 296.

54. Thomas Kamm, ?Nigeria Executions Raise Sanction Threat,? Wall Street Journal, November 13, 1995, A10; John M. Goshko, ?U.S. Censures Nigeria?s Execution of Nine Activists, Installs Penalties,? Washington Post, November 11, 1995.

55. ?Papua New Guinea: Bank Signals Disquiet over Logging Tax,? Greenwire 5 no. 242 (April 26, 1996); ?Papua New Guinea: Bank Withholds Loan Over Logging Fears,? Greenwire 6 no. 113 (October 10, 1996); ?Cambodia: Inadequate Logging Policy Delays International Funding,? Greenwire, November 15, 1996.

56. Carol Matlack, ?What Happened to the Coal Miners? Dollars? At Least $100 Million from a World Bank Loan Is Lost,? Business Week, September 8, 1997, 52, 54.

57. John Lloyd, ?A Country Where the Awful Has Already Happened,? Financial Times, October 24?25, 1998, xxvi.

58. Jeffrey A. Winters, ?Down With the World Bank,? Far Eastern Economic Review, February 13, 1997, 29; Keith Loveard, ?The Dark Side of Prosperity: A World Bank Critic Alleges Waste and Graft,? Asia Week, August 15, 1997.

59. Glenn R. Simpson, ?World Bank Memo Depicts Diverted Funds, Corruption in Jakarta; Report Contrasts with ?97 Denials,? Wall Street Journal, August 19, 1998, A14.

60. Jane Loos, Regional Manager, EAPCO, ?Options to Reduce Negative Impact from Corruption on Bank-Financed Activities,? World Bank office memorandum to Mr. Jean-Michel Severino, Vice President, EAP, October 19, 1998. See also: Stephen Fidler, ?World Bank Loans Hit by ?Corruption,?? Financial Times, December 8, 1998.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/beritamalaysia/message/4157

61. Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarion Press, 2008), 154.

62. World Bank Staff Association, Proposal to Increase Effectiveness of Some Poverty Reduction Targeted Projects, World Bank Staff Association report, undated, ?Annex: Bitterness, Disillusion, and Possible Solutions,? quoted in Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending, 145-46.

63. Kay Treakle and Elías Díaz Peña, ?Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take? Lessons from the Yacyretá Hydroelectric Project, Argentina/Paraguay,? in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (New York and London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), 69?90, 71.

64. Shirley Christian, ?Buenos Aires Journal?Billions Flow to Dam (And Billions Down Drain?),? New York Times, May 4, 1990.

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/04/world/buenos-aires-journal-billions-flow-to-dam-and-billions-down-drain.html

65. World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003), 59.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/TenYear8_07.pdf

66. Ibid., 58.

67. Ibid., 60.

68. See: Treakle and and Díaz Peña, ?Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?? for the most detailed account of these events; also see: World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On, 58?68.

69. World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On, 63?65.

70. The World Bank?s Singrauli loans are discussed in greater detail in Mortgaging the Earth, 38?43.

71. Treakle and and Díaz Peña, ?Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?? 78.

72. Ibid., 77?78,

73. Ibid., 78.

74. Quoted in Treakle and and Díaz Peña, ?Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?? 79; see also: Mark Suzman, ?Row Brews Over Bank Role in Dam Project,? Financial Times, May 4, 1998, International Section, 4.

75. Quoted in Treakle and and Díaz Peña, ?Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?? 80.

76. Quoted in ibid., 80.

77. Quoted in ibid., 83.

78. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Investigation Report, Paraguay?Reform Project for the Water and Telecommunications Sector (Loan No. 3842-PA); Argentina?SEGBA V Power Distribution Project (Loan No. 2854-AR), Report No. 27995, February 24, 2004, ix, xiii. See also: International Rivers, ?World Bank Investigation Confirms Serious Problems at Yacyretá Dam,? May 10, 2004.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/FullInvestigationReport.pdf

79. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Safeguards and Sustainability in a Changing World: An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Experience (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010), 7.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTOED/EXTSAFANDSUS/0,,contentMDK:22708739~menuPK:6120534~pagePK:64829573~piPK:64829550~theSitePK:6120524,00.html

80. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ?Guidelines on Aid and Development, No. 3, Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects? (Paris: OECD, 1992).

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/27/1887708.pdf

81. Alternate U.S. executive director?s statement to the World Bank/IFC board, December 1992, quoted in Susan Park, ?Becoming Green: Diffusing Sustainable Development Norms throughout the World Bank Group,? in The World Bank and Governance: A Decade of Reform and Reaction, ed. Diane Stone and Christopher Wright (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), 175.

82. Susan Park, ?Becoming Green,? in The World Bank and Governance, 174?76. On the Bío-Bío case see also: David Hunter, Cristián Opaso, and Marco Orellana, ?The Biobío?s Legacy: Institutional Reforms and Unfulfilled Promises at the International Finance Corporation,? in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (New York and London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), 115?43.

83. Jay D. Hair, et al., Pangue Hydroelectric Project (Chile): ?An Independent Review of the International Finance Corporation?s Compliance with Applicable World Bank Group Environmental and Social Requirements,? internal World Bank Group document, Santiago, Chile, April 4, 1997, 3, 4.

http://www.sdsg.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Pangue-hydroelectric-proj....

84. See: www.equator-principles.com

85. See: ?Members & Reporting? and ?The Equator Principles: Frequently Asked Questions? at Equator-principles.com.

http://www.equator-principles.com/index.php/members-reporting/members-and-reporting

http://www.equator-principles.com/index.php/about-ep/faqs

86. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Trade and Agricultural Directorate, Trade Committee, Working Party on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees, Revised Council Recommendation on Common Approaches on the Environment and Officially Supported Export Credits, TAD/ECG(2007)9, June 12, 2007. See also, e.g.: Bruce Rich, ?Exporting Destruction,? Environmental Forum, September-October 2000, 31?30; Bruce Rich, ?A Test Case for Export Finance, Environmental Forum, January-February 2009, 20.

http://search.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf/?cote=TAD/ECG(2007)9&doclanguage=en

87. See, for example: Sebastian Mallaby in The World?s Banker (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004), discussed in chapter 4.

 

Chapter 4 Notes

1. David E. Sanger and Joseph Kahn, ?World Bank Criticizes Itself Over Chinese Project Near Tibet, New York Times, June 27, 2000.

http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/27/world/world-bank-criticizes-itself-over-chinese-project-near-tibet.html

2. World Bank, ?World Bank Approves China Western Poverty Alleviation Project,? Press Release No. 99/2282/EAP, June 24, 1999.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20016088~menuPK:64282137~pagePK:41367~piPK:279616~theSitePK:40941,00.html

3. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, The Qinghai Project, A Component of the China Western Poverty Reduction Project (Credit No. 3255 CHA and Loan No. 4501-CHA), April 28, 2000, xii.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/CHINA-InvestigationReport.pdf

4. Dana Clark and Kay Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003), 211?45, 213?14.

5. Undated letter from Tibetans in Tulan Dzong to ?fellow Tibetans living in independent countries,? cited in Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 215.

6. Ibid., 222, 232; see also: David E. Sanger, ?Ideas and Trends: Karma and Helms: A Stick for China, a Carrot for Tibet?s Lobby,? New York Times, July 11, 1999.

http://www.nytimes.com/1999/07/11/weekinreview/ideas-trends-karma-and-helms-a-stick-for-china-a-carrot-for-tibet-s-lobby.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

7. ?Tibetan Tinderbox,? The Economist, June 17 1999.

http://www.economist.com/node/214447

8. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 221.

9. Ibid., 222.

10. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 223, 237.

11. India remained the largest cumulative borrower.

12. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 224.

13. World Bank, Press Release No. 99/2282/EAP, June 24, 1999.

14. Indira Lakshmanan, ?China?s Long March,? Boston Globe, August 22, 1999, cited in Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 226.

15. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 226; BBC News, World: Asia-Pacific, ?China Releases Detained Tibet Activist,? August 21, 1999; World Tibet Network News, ?Dharamsala Urges Release of Two Detained Foreigners in Tibet (DIIR),? August 20, 1999.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/427119.stm

16. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 227?28.

17. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, The Qinghai Project, Executive Summary, paragraph 38, xxi; paragraphs 53, 60, xxiv, xxvi.

18. Ibid., paragraphs 9, 10, xiv; paragraph 14, xv.

19. Ibid., paragraph 45, xxii?xxiii.

20. ?A Misguided World Bank Project, New York Times, July 5, 2000.

http://www.nytimes.com/2000/07/05/opinion/a-misguided-world-bank-project.html

21. Jan Piercy, ?Qinghai Component of Western China Poverty Reduction Project: Inspection Panel Report and Management Response,? statement of U.S. executive director to the World Bank, July 6, 2000, cited in Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 233.

22. Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 233; Stefanie Ricarda Roos, ?The World Bank Inspection Panel in Its Seventh Year: An Analysis of Its Process, Mandate, and Desirability with Special Reference to the China (Tibet) Case,? in J. A. Frowein and R. Wolfrum, eds., Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, vol. V, 2001 (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001), 473?521, 479.

http://www.mpil.de/shared/data/pdf/pdfmpunyb/roos_5.pdf

23. John Ackerly, International Campaign for Tibet, cited in Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 238.

24. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), 325.

25. Ibid., 327.

26. James D. Wolfensohn, meeting between President Wolfensohn and NGOs, including the Bank Information Center and the Center for International Environmental Law, Washington, DC, April 19, 2001, cited in Clark and Treakle, ?The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,? 236.

27. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, OED Review of the Bank?s Performance on the Environment, July 5, 2001, 20.

28. Ibid., 23.

29. Ibid., 24?25.

30. This is the definition used by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), an industry-supported organization. See: World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision Making, An Overview, November 16, 2000, 5.

http://www.dams.org/report/wcd_overview.htm

31. Khargram, Dams and Development, 34.

32. Ibid., 34.

33. Ibid., 157.

34. Navroz K. Dubash, Mairi Dupar, Smitu Kothari, and Tundu Lissu, A Watershed in Global Governance? An Independent Assessment of the World Commission on Dams (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, Lokayan, and Lawyer?s Environmental Action Team, 2001), 27?28.

http://pdf.wri.org/wcd_full.pdf

35. Dubash et al., A Watershed in Global Governance? 33.

36. Khargram, Dams and Development, 203, 205.

37. World Commission on Dams, An Overview, 1.

38. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 39.

39. Ibid., 53?53; World Commission on Dams, An Overview, 9.

40. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 48.

41. World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision Making (London, UK, and Sterling, VA: Earthscan, November 2000).

http://www.internationalrivers.org/en/dams-and-development-new-framework-decision

42. Nelson Mandela, ?Address on the Occasion of the Launch of the Final Report of the World Commission on Dams,? Cabot Hall, London, November 16, 2000.

43. World Commission on Dams, ?Dams and Development,? 13.

44. Ibid., 73, xxxi, 66?68.

45. Ibid., 75?77. The WCD could not come up with a precise figure, citing estimates of between 1 percent and 28 percent of total global greenhouse-gas emissions?the higher figure being obviously quite unlikely.

46. Ibid., 39?41.

47. Ibid., 43, 56.

48. Ibid., 207.

49. Ibid., 208.

50. Ibid., 215.

51. International Labor Organization, C169 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples? Convention 169, 16.2.

http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C169

52. World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development, 221?43.

53. Ibid.

54. International Rivers Network, Protecting Rivers and Rights: The World Commission on Dams Recommendations in Action Briefing Kit (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, July 2010), 3.

http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/WCDbriefingkit_0.pdf

55. International Rivers Network, Citizen?s Guide to the World Commission on Dams (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, 2002), 13?15.

56. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 111, 116, note 61.

57. Nirmalya Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India: Between Global Norms and Local Practices, Discussion Paper 10, Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik ISSN 1860-0441 (Bonn: Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungs Politik, 2010), 12, 26. Choudhury notes, ?In the line it follows, in the principles it formulates and in the approach it adopts to human and constitutional rights, the National Working Group?s 1989 draft policy . . . is similar to the report published by the WCD in 2000.? (Ibid., 26.)

http://indiagovernance.gov.in/files/DP_10.2010.pdf

58. R. R. Iyer, ?Towards a Just Displacement and Rehabilitation Policy,? Economic and Political Weekly 42, no. 30 (July 29, 2007), quoted in Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India, 13.

59. Waltina Scheumann, German Development Institute Department of Environmental Policy and Natural Resources Management, Foreword, in Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India.

60. World Bank, Water Resources Sector Strategy: Strategic Directions for World Bank Engagement (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004), 38.

http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/06/01/000090341_20040601150257/Rendered/PDF/28114.pdf

61. NGO Letter to the World Bank, Follow-up to the World Commission on Dams, March 19, 2001; see: Rivernet.org.

http://www.rivernet.org/general/wcd/ngoletter.htm

62. World Bank, Water Resources Sector Strategy, 38.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid., 46.

65. Ibid., 46?47.

66. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Uganda Third Power Project, Fourth Power Project, and Proposed Bujagali Hydropower Project (2001), May 23, 2002, 76.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/UGANDAIRMainReport.pdf

67. See Request for Inspection, Uganda National Associate of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) and Save Bujagali Crusade, to Executive Secretary, Inspection Panel, World Bank Group, July 15, 2001.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Uganda_Bujagali_2001_REQUEST_FOR_INSPECTION.pdf

68. World Bank, ?Summary of the Discussion of the Joint Meeting of Executive Directors of the Bank and IDA and the Board of Directors of IFC,? December 18, 2001, 19, quoted in Environmental Defense, Friends of the Earth, International Rivers Network, Gambling with People?s Lives: What the World Bank?s New ?High-Risk/High-Reward Strategy Means for the Poor and the Environment, 2003, 31.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources/EDhighrisk.pdf

69. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Uganda Third Power Project, Fourth Power Project, and Proposed Bujagali Hydropower Project, 57.

70. See: International Rivers Network, ?A Review of the World Bank?s Inspection Panel Report on the Bujagali Hydroelectric Power Project,? June 10, 2002, 7?8.

71. Republic of Uganda, In the High Court of Uganda at Kampala, HCT-00-CV-MC-0139 of 2001 Greenwatch (U) Limited, Applicant, versus Attorney General, Respondents, Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Ltd, Before: The Honourable Mr. Justice FMS Egonda-Ntende, Ruling, November 12, 2002.

http://www.right2info.org/cases/UgandacasereDamagreementjudgment2002.doc

72. Prayas Energy Group of Pune, India, ?The Bujagali Power Purchase Agreement?An Independent Review: A Study of Techno-Economic Aspects of the Power Purchase Agreement of the Bujagali Hydroelectric Project in Uganda? (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, November 20, 2002), 2, 3.

http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/bujagalippa-review.pdf

73. Peter Bosshard, International Rivers Network, personal communication, February 10, 2012.

74. United States Securities Exchange Commission, Form 10-Q, The AES Corporation, Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2003, 18.

http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/874761/000110465903017847/a03-1517_110q.htm

75. Ibid., 16?18.

76. Corpwatch, ?AES Backs Out of Bujagali Dam Project,? August 28, 2003.

http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=8250

77. See, e.g.: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 26?29, 34?38.

78. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department (OED), The World Bank Forest Strategy: Striking the Right Balance (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000), xx, 8.

http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/b57456d58aba40e585256ad400736404/f7d852631e3a2b25852569a800654b8c/$FILE/forestry.pdf

79. Ibid., 5.

80. Ibid., 47.

81. Ibid., 27.

82. Ibid., 28.

83. Herman Daly, ?The Perils of Free Trade,? Scientific American 269, no. 5 (November 1993): 50?57.

http://www.redfortyeight.com/2010/01/27/the-perils-of-free-trade/

84. Jagwash Bhagati, ?The Case for Free Trade,? Scientific American 269, no. 5 (November 1993): 42?49; the World Bank perspective was set out in the Bank?s1992 World Development Report: Development and the Environment (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1992).

85. World Bank OED, The World Bank Forest Strategy, xxiii?xxv.

86. Ibid., 31.

87. World Bank Operational Manuel, ?OP 4.36?Forests,? November 2002.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20064668~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184~isCURL:Y,00.html

88. World Bank Operations Manuel, ?OP 8.60?Development Policy Lending,? August 2004; see discussion in Korinna Horta, ?Forests and Structural Adjustment,? in Broken Promises: How World Bank Group Policies and Practice Fail to Protect Forests and Forest Peoples? Rights (Rainforest Foundation, 2005), 43?46, and Ricardo Carrere and Marcus Colchester, ?The World Bank and Forests,? in Broken Promises, 4?5.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20240031~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184~isCURL:Y~isCURL:Y,00.html

89. Indigenous Pygmy Organizations and Pygmy Support Organizations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, ?Request Submitted to the World Bank Inspection Panel,? Kinshasa-DRC, Kinshasa-DRC, October 30, 2005, 3; see World Bank references in footnotes 3?6.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/RequestforInspectionEnglish.pdf

90. Ibid. 9?10; see also: Banque Mondial, Republique Democratique du Congo, Sector Forestial, Mission de Suivi Sectoriel (17?27 Avril, 2002), Aide-Memoire, 4.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex07.pdf

91. World Bank, Technical Annex for a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 117.0 Million (US $164 Million Equivalent) and a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 35.7 Million (US $50 Million Equivalent) to the Democratic Republic of the Congo for an Emergency Economic and Social Reunification Project, August 14, 2003, Report No: T7601-ZR), 29, 85.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex01Annex03.pdf

92. Letter of CENADEP (Centre National d?Appui au Développement et à la Participation Populaire) and CNONGD (Conseil National des Organisations Non-Gouvernementales de Développement du Congo), to Monsieur le Représentant Résident de la Banque Mondiale à Kinshasa-Gombe, and others, Kinshasa, February 12, 2004.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex18.pdf

93. Indigenous Pygmy Organizations, ?Request,? 11; see also: Simon Counsell, Rainforest Foundation, ?Democratic Republic of Congo?After the War, the Fight for the Forest,? in Broken Promises, 11?19, 15.

94. ARD, Conflict Timber: Dimensions of the Problem in Asia and Africa, vol. III, African Cases, DRCongo Case study (Burlington, VT: USAID/ARD, May 2003), 16, 17.

http://www.rainforestfoundationuk.org/files/ARD%20report%20vol3afr.pdf

95. Ibid., 41.

96. Rainforest Foundation, transcript, ?VIDEO-CONFÉRENCE Concerning the Role of the World Bank in the Forest Sector of the Democratic Republic of Congo with Mr. James Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank,? July 8, 2004, 4.

http://www.rainforestfoundationuk.org/files/Transcription%20of%20video%20conference%208.07.04.pdf

97. Rainforest Foundation, videoconference with James D. Wolfensohn, 13.

98. Ibid., 10.

99. Ibid., 12?13.

100. Greenpeace International, ?Forest Crime File: Danzer Involved in Bribery and Illegal Logging; Greenpeace Investigation Reveals Swiss-German Company Bribing Officials in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Republic of Congo? (Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, June 2004).

http://www.wrm.org.uy/deforestation/logging/danzergroup.pdf

101. Rainforest Foundation, videoconference with James D. Wolfensohn, 14.

102. Ibid., 14?15.

103. Ibid., 16.

104. Ibid., 18.

105. World Bank Inspection Panel, Investigation Report, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Transitional Support for Economic Recovery Grant (TSERO) (IDA Grant No. H 1920-DRC) and Emergency Economic and Social Reunification Support Project (EESRSP) (Credit No. 3824-DRC and Grant No. H 064-DRC) (Washington, DC: World Bank, August 31, 2007), 129?30.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/FINALINVREPwhole.pdf

106. Ibid., xiv, xxi.

107. Ibid., 91.

108. Ibid., 108.

109. World Bank News Release, ?World Bank Board Discusses Inspection Panel Investigation of Forest Sector Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo: World Bank Committed to Staying Engaged in Improving Management of Congolese Forests,? News Release No. 2008/188/AFR.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/PRESSRELEASEJAN2008.pdf

110. World Bank, ?Progress Report to the Board of Executive
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"deeply-researched and filled with heretofore publicly unavailable Bank documents.... His book argues thoroughly and methodically that the Bank's permissive attitude towards environmental destruction has continued, if not worsened, in the past decade."

The New Republic

"Rich's most valuable insights concern how often the World Bank has been informed ? by its own internal review boards, no less ? that its policies have not reduced poverty so much as hastened environmental destruction and enabled corruption by public officials in developing nations. Nevertheless, the bank has gone on 'pushing money out the door'?giving large loans that make it appear to be moving heaven and earth on behalf of the poor but in practice often do the opposite."

OnEarth

"...offers a passionate and sharp-tongued but well-informed analysis. Rich doesn't spare the World Bank management with critique, but is aware that the buck doesn't stop there."

Huffington Post

"Foreclosing the Future carefully documents the World Bank's adherence to 'pushing the money out the door,' refusing to learn from past mistakes, tolerating corruption, trashing the planet, and evicting the poor?all in devout service to a mismeasure of wealth. Bruce Rich gives a tragic, honest, and well-argued account of the decline of a once-promising institution."

Herman Daly, Professor Emeritus, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland

"A compelling account of the past two decades of global environmental politics as played out in the world's leading development institution. Foreclosing the Future underscores that the need for public scrutiny of international financial institutions is as great as ever."

Senator Tom Udall, NM, Chair, Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere & Global Narcotics Affairs

"Bruch Rich paints a vivid picture of the environmental damage that civic groups, governments, corporations, and the multinational lending sector have all grappled with over the past years."

Daniel Kammen, Distinguished Professor of Energy, University of California, Berkeley

"The strength of the book, however, is its dissection of the Bank's approach to climate change."

Financial Times

"As well as presenting powerful arguments for reform, the book is crammed full of facts about the Bank and international development nance. It also documents two decades of civil society campaigns to hold the Bank accountable and promote reform. For these reasons, it will be of great interest to civil society activists and campaigners in the North and South."

Forest Peoples Programme

"...this book offers an important pooling of evidence that should guide both scholars and practitioners in their understanding of and work with development in general and the World Bank specifically. Rich's volume is an important addition to the conversation on the role and impact of the World Bank and should receive careful and serious attention in efforts to reform the Bank and truly alleviate global poverty while preserving the world in which all people must live."

Poverty & Public Policy

"Based on his expertise and numerous case studies, as well as internal and external reports and evaluations, Rich gives a compelling account of the past 20 years of global of global environmental politics played out in the world's leading developmental institutions."

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