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All Ebook Formats $36.99 ISBN: 9781597269599 Published June 2010
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Conservation by Proxy

Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, and Other Surrogate Species

 Conservation by Proxy
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Tim Caro

400 pages | 54 figures, 64 tables | 6 x 9
The vast scope of conservation problems has forced biologists and managers to rely on "surrogate" species to serve as shortcuts to guide their decision making. These species-known by a host of different terms, including indicator, umbrella, and flagship species-act as proxies to represent larger conservation issues, such as the location of biodiversity hotspots or general ecosystem health.
Synthesizing an immense body of literature, conservation biologist and field researcher Tim Caro offers systematic definitions of surrogate species concepts, explores biological theories that underlie them, considers how surrogate species are chosen, critically examines evidence for and against their utility, and makes recommendations for their continued use. The book
  • clarifies terminology and contrasts how different terms are used in the real world
  • considers the ecological, taxonomic, and political underpinnings of these shortcuts
  • identifies criteria that make for good surrogate species
  • outlines the circumstances where the application of the surrogate species concept shows promise
Conservation by Proxy is a benchmark reference that provides clear definitions and common understanding of the evidence and theory behind surrogate species. It is the first book to review and bring together literature on more than fifteen types of surrogate species, enabling us to assess their role in conservation and offering guidelines on how they can be used most effectively.
"Surrogate species have been a holy grail for establishing conservation targets and measureing success. Conservation by Proxy distinguishes precise definitions from buzzwords, which is essential for credible application of concepts to practice. Compelling examples are drawn from virtually every ecosystem and level of biological organization. This impressive synthesis will promote both honesty about the inferences surrogates can provide and consideration of alternative metrics for assessing environmental status and trends."
Erica Fleishman, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, UC Santa Barbara

"Caro cleans up terminology and infrequently tested hypotheses to produce an insightful account of core ideas in conservation. Practitioners will benefit from his conceptual clarity when planning their conservation actions."
Stuart Pimm, Doris Duke Professor of Conservation Ecology, Duke University

"Tim Caro brings order to a long-neglected area of conservation with remarkably lucid logic."
Hugh Possingham, Professor of Ecology and Mathematics, University of Queensland, Australia

"Conservation biology has emerged over the past twenty-five years as an important new subdiscipline, central to the management of the natural world and its nonvoting species. Tim Caro's comprehensive review examines the successes and shortcomings of difference scientific, economic, and aesthetic approaches to protecting endangered species and their habitats. Conservation by Proxy uses an elegant blend of quantitative comparisons and insightful examples to illustrate what has worked and what has failed. It is essential reading for anyone concerned with the conservation of biodiversity in the critical next few decades."
Andy Dobson, Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University

"This is a needed reference for conservation biologists to study and consult before employing the surrogate species concept to meet their objectives."

"... In this book, Tim Caro ably compiles and dissects in one compact source the large body of literature about surrogate species in conservation biology. ... The book is well written and richly referenced, with 65 pages of citations; this section alone renders the book a valuable addition to one's conservation library. The author deftly employs this vast literature in well-developed examples in the text, tables, and figures. ... Conservation by Proxy offers an invaluable contribution to the literature of conservation biology. I highly recommend it for academics or students involved with surrogates, as well as anyone grappling with biodiversity conservation or quantifying effects of environmental change. Caro offers not only a timely, thorough journey through the realm of surrogates, but also an effective and less costly alternative to these proxies."

"The book can be recommended to anyone with a deep interest in the fate of biological diversity and its conservation. It is clearly written with examples presented from all over the plant and animal kingdom. Furthermore it is nicely illustrated with numerous drawings, figures and tables... To sum up, if you are a conservation biologist, this is indeed a book you need to have on your own bookshelves and not borrow quickly from the library. It will prove to be useful repeatedly."
Basic and Applied Ecology

PART I. Introduction
Chapter 1. Buzzwords in Conservation Biology
- Shortcuts
- Biodiversity
- Scale
- Surrogate species in systematic conservation
- Difficulties in surrogate typology
- Summary
PART II. Distribution of Biodiversity
Chapter 2. Species Indicators of Biodiversity at a Large Scale
- A big picture
- Congruency of species richness
- Congruency of endemism
- Congruency of rarity
- Congruency of threatened species
- Complementarity and congruency
- Concordance between measures of biodiversity
- Biodiversity distribution and protected areas
- Practical application
- Summary
PART III. Reserve Site Selection
Chapter 3. Species Indicators of Biodiversity in Reserve Selection
- A smaller scale
- Cross-taxon congruence of species richness
- With-taxon congruence of species richness
- Congruency of endemism, congruency of rarity, and congruency of threatened species
- Concordance between measures of biodiversity
- Congruency of complementarity
- Protected area coverage
- Marine reserve prioritization
- Environmental surrogates
- Practical issues
- Summary
PART IV. Reserve Design and management
Chapter 4. Umbrella Species and Landscape Species
- Three conservation goals
- Lambeck's insight
- Umbrella species by taxon
- Choosing an appropriate umbrella species
- Problems with umbrella species
- Management implications
 - Landscape species
- Summary
Chapter 5. Keystone, Engineering and Foundation Species
- The keystone species concept
- Ecosystem engineers
- Foundation species
- Management issues
- Summary
PART V. Species Indicators of Anthropegenic Change
Chapter 6. Environmental Indicator Species
- Ecosystem health and biological integrity
- Environmental indicators
- Examples of the uses of environmental indicator species
- Proliferation and obfuscation of terms
- Summary
Chapter 7. Ecological Disturbance Indicator Species
- Effects of disturbance
- Proposed criteria for indicator species
- Single species and species-groups as indicators of disturbance
- Examples of the use of species-groups in documenting effects of land-use change
- Changes in populations over time
- Determining the number of species-groups
- Management pointers
- Summary
Chapter 8. Cross-taxon Response Indicator Species
- Habitat alteration
- Fora for cross-taxon-response indicator species
- Intraguild-response indicator species
- Population changes
- Management indicator species
- Early warnings
- Substitute species
- Problems with cross-taxon-response indicator species
- Summary
PART VI. Promoting Conservation
Chapter 9. Flagship Species
- Characteristics of flagship species
- Multiple objectives
- Are flagship species successful?
- Qualities of flagship species
- Iconic species
- What's next?
- Summary
PART VII. Summary of Concepts and Cost-Effectiveness
Chapter 10. Surrogate Species in the Real World
- Surrogate categories
- Synopsis
- Distribution of biodiversity
- Reserve site selection
- Reserve design and management
- Species indicators of anthropogenic change
- Promoting conservation
- Wrap-up
- Summary
Scientific Names of Species Mentioned in the Text
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