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Foreclosing the Future

The World Bank and the Politics of Environmental Destruction

 Foreclosing the Future
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Bruce Rich

320 pages | References | 6 x 9
World Bank President Jim Yong Kim has vowed that his institution will fight poverty and climate change, a claim that World Bank presidents have made for two decades. But if worldwide protests and reams of damning internal reports are any indication, too often it does just the opposite. By funding development projects and programs that warm the planet and destroy critical natural resources on which the poor depend, the Bank has been hurting the very people it claims to serve. What explains this blatant contradiction?

If anyone has the answer, it is arguably Bruce Rich—a lawyer and expert in public international finance who has for the last three decades studied the Bank’s institutional contortions, the real-world consequences of its lending, and the politics of the global environmental crisis. What emerges from the bureaucratic dust is a disturbing and gripping story of corruption, larger-than-life personalities, perverse incentives, and institutional amnesia. The World Bank is the Vatican of development finance, and its dysfunction plays out as a reflection of the political hypocrisies and failures of governance of its 188 member countries.

Foreclosing the Future shows how the Bank’s failure to address the challenges of the 21st Century has implications for everyone in an increasingly interdependent world. Rich depicts how the World Bank is a microcosm of global political and economic trends—powerful forces that threaten both environmental and social ruin. Rich shows how the Bank has reinforced these  forces, undercutting the most idealistic attempts at alleviating poverty and sustaining the environment, and damaging the lives of millions. Readers will see global politics on an increasingly crowded planet as they never have before—and come to understand the changes necessary if the World Bank is ever to achieve its mission.

"deeply-researched and filled with heretofore publicly unavailable Bank documents.... His book argues thoroughly and methodically that the Bank's permissive attitude towards environmental destruction has continued, if not worsened, in the past decade."
The New Republic


"Rich's most valuable insights concern how often the World Bank has been informed – by its own internal review boards, no less – that its policies have not reduced poverty so much as hastened environmental destruction and enabled corruption by public officials in developing nations. Nevertheless, the bank has gone on 'pushing money out the door' – giving large loans that make it appear to be moving heaven and earth on behalf of the poor but in practice often do the opposite.”
OnEarth


"...offers a passionate and sharp-tongued but well-informed analysis. Rich doesn't spare the World Bank management with critique, but is aware that the buck doesn't stop there."
Huffington Post


Foreclosing the Future carefully documents the World Bank’s adherence to ‘pushing the money out the door,’ refusing to learn from past mistakes, tolerating corruption, trashing the planet, and evicting the poor—all in devout service to a mismeasure of wealth. Bruce Rich gives a tragic, honest, and well-argued account of the decline of a once-promising institution.”

Herman Daly Professor Emeritus, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, and former Senior Economist, World Bank


 "A compelling account of the past two decades of global environmental politics as played out in the world's leading development institution. Foreclosing the Future underscores that the need for public scrutiny of international financial institutions is as great as ever."

Senator Tom Udall, New Mexico, Chair, Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere & Global Narcotics Affairs


“Bruch Rich paints a vivid picture of the environmental damage that civic groups, governments, corporations, and the multinational lending sector have all grappled with over the past years.”

Daniel Kammen Distinguished Professor of Energy, University of California, Berkeley; former Chief, Technical Specialist for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, World Bank


"The strength of the book, however, is its dissection of the Bank’s approach to climate change."
Financial Times


"As well as presenting powerful arguments for reform, the book is crammed full of facts about the Bank and international development nance. It also documents two decades of civil society campaigns to hold the Bank accountable and promote reform. For these reasons, it will be of great interest to civil society activists and campaigners in the North and South."
Forest Peoples Programme


"...this book offers an important pooling of evidence that should guide both scholars and practitioners in their understanding of and work with development in general and the World Bank specifically. Rich's volume is an important addition to the conversation on the role and impact of the World Bank and should receive careful and serious attention in efforts to reform the Bank and truly alleviate global poverty while preserving the world in which all people must live."
Poverty & Public Policy


Preface

Chapter 1. Tiger Talk

Chapter 2. Present at the Creation

Chapter 3. “I Can Change the Approval Culture to an Effectiveness Culture”

Chapter 4. High Risk, High Reward

Chapter 5. The Logic Was Textbook Perfect

Chapter 6. Backwards Into the Future

Chapter 7. The Brief, Broken Presidency of Paul Wolfowitz

Chapter 8. The Carbon Caravan

Chapter 9. A Market Like No Other

Chapter 10. Financializing Development

Chapter 11. Dying for Growth

Chapter 12. What Does it Take?

Notes
Index


 
Erratum: CERs (pp. xv, 142, 163, 292), issued under the Kytoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, are Certified Emission Reductions, not Certified Emission Rights.
Notes
Chapter 1 Notes
1. World Bank Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, Global Tiger Recovery Program 2010–2022 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), iv.
2. Fred Weir, “Putin Praises DiCaprio as ‘Real Man’ after Harrowing Journey to Tiger Summit,” Christian Science Monitor, November 24, 2010. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2010/1124/Putin-praises-DiCaprio-as-real-man-after-harrowing-journey-to-tiger-summit
3. Shaun Walker, “DeCaprio, Putin, and the All-Star Plot to Save Tigers,” The Independent (UK), November 25, 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/dicaprio-putin-and-the-allstar-plot-to-save-tigers-2143085.html
4. Ibid.
5. Walker, “DiCaprio, Putin, and the All-Star Plot to Save Tigers.”
6. Jonathan Watts, “Putin May Be the Tiger’s Champion, but China Will Decide the Species’ Future: Premier Wen’s Vague Words at the Tiger Summit Do Little to Inspire Confidence in the Country That Drives a Gruesome Trade,” The Guardian, Environment Blog, November 23, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/nov/23/putin-tiger-china-premier-wen
7. Caroline Fraser, “As Tigers Near Extinction, A Last-Ditch Strategy Emerges,” Yale Environment 360, November 15, 2010. http://e360.yale.edu/feature/as_tigers_near_extinction_the_world_bank_and_environmental_groups_craft_last-ditch_strategy/2339/
8. “New $350-Million Plan to Save the Tiger—But Will It Work?,” WildlifeExtra.com, Wild Travel, n.d.
www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/tiger-summit.html#cr
9. Technically the World Bank Group also includes a fifth institution, the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. As the name indicates, this is an arbitration panel, not a financial lending, insurance, or investment agency, as are the IBRD, IDA, IFC, and MIGA.
10. Voting shares differ, though, for the different affiliates, e.g., in the IBRD the United States has 16.09 percent, Japan 9.62 percent, Germany 4.41 percent, and the United Kingdom and France 4.22 percent each. In IDA the U.S. share is 11.09 percent, followed by 8.74 percent for Japan, 5.68 percent for Germany, 5.46 percent for the United Kingdom, and 3.86 percent for France. See: The World Bank, “Executive Directors and Their Voting Power, June 30, 2011,”Annual Report 2011: Year in Review (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2011). At the IFC the United States has 24.03 percent of the voting shares, followed by Japan, Germany, France and the United Kingdom with 5.96 percent, 5.44 percent, 5.11 percent, and 5.11 percent, respectively. See: International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group, I Am Opportunity—IFC Annual Report 2011 (Washington, DC: IFC, 2011), 91; International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group, I Am Opportunity IFC Annual Report 2011 (Washington, DC: IFC, 2011).
http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/CORP_EXT_Content/IFC_External_Corporate_Site/Annual+Report/2011+Printed+Report/AR_PrintedReport/
11. See: World Bank Group website, Worldbank.org.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html
12 World Bank, Annual Report 2011, 3–4.
13. “Rights groups say 19 journalists have been victims of contract killings in Russia since 2000, the year Putin was first elected president, and none of the masterminds of the murders has been jailed.” See: Timothy Heritage, “Analysis: Journalist’s Murder a Test Case for Russia’s Putin,” Reuters, October 6, 2011.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/06/us-russia-politkovskaya-idUSTRE7954SK20111006
14. Gary Peach, “Greenpeace Decries Russian PM’s Environmental Record over Past Decade,” Associated Press, June 4, 2010.
http://www.therecord.com/print/article/429600
15. Claudia Dreifus, “Zoologist Gives a Voice to Big Cats in the Wilderness,” New York Times, Science Section, December 18, 2007.
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/18/science/18conv.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Organizations/W/Wildlife%20Conservation%20Society
16. Patrick Barkham, “One Last Chance: Can We Save the Tiger?,” The Guardian, November 9, 2010.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/nov/09/last-chance-to-save-the-tiger
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Peter Foster, “Poachers Empty Indian Wildlife Park of Tigers,” Telegraph, London, April 9, 2005; Fraser, “As Tigers Near Extinction.”
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/1487485/Poachers-empty-Indian-wildlife-park-of-tigers.html
21. Rachna Singh, “Illegal Mining Threatens Sariska,” Times of India, October 13, 2010.
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-10-13/jaipur/28227927_1_illegal-mining-mine-owners-jamwa-ramgarh
22. Kathy Lilly, “Members of Russian Summit Have Diverging Views but United Goal: Saving the Tiger,” Washington Post, November 20, 2010.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/19/AR2010111903652.html?nav=emailpage
23. Marwaan Macan-Marker, “World Bank Aims to Earn Stripes through Tiger Summit,” Online Asia Times, January 26, 2010.
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/LA26Ae01.html
24. For more on the Operations Evaluation Department, see: Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1994), 171–72.
25. Richard Carlos Worden and Colin Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank–Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, Evaluation Brief 12 (Washington, DC: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), 2011), x.
26. Ibid., 17. The three projects in question were so-called ICDPs—Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. The concept of combining rural development with conservation dates back to the mid-1980s.
27. Ibid., xi.
28. See, e.g.: Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008). All of these issues will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters.
29. World Bank Annual Report, 2011, IBRD and IDA Cumulative Lending by Country/Fiscal 1945–2011.
30. Independent People’s Tribunal on the World Bank in India, Findings of the Jury (New Delhi: Shivaam Sundaram, September 11, 2008), 2, 26–27. Two non-Indians were also on the jury: Alejandro Nadal, professor of economics and coordinator of the Science and Technology Program at El Colegio de Mexico, and the author.
www.worldbanktribunal.org
31. Ibid., 11, 17, 23.
32. Herman Daly, interview with Martin Eierman, “We Need a Crisis, and a Change of Values,” The European, September 5, 2011.
http://www.theeuropean-magazine.com/356-daly/357-the-end-of-growth
33. William Easterly, The Elusive Quest for Growth (Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 2011).
34. William Easterly, “The Failure of Development: In Spite of Billions of Dollars Spent on Aid to Poor Countries, There Has Been No Real Progress, says William E,” Financial Times, USA Edition, July 4, 2001.
35. William Easterly, “The Ideology of Development,” Foreign Policy, July-August 2007.
http://www.kursusinfo.life.ku.dk/Kurser/290061/presentation/~/media/Kurser/FOI/290061/Easterly%20W%20The%20Ideology%20of%20Development.ashx
36. Quoted in Vincent McElhinny, “Troubling Implications for Investment Lending Reform,” Bank Information Center IFI INFO Brief, October 2010.
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Page.Publications.aspx
37. Ibid.
38. UK Parliament, House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee—Fifth Report: The Impact of UK Overseas Aid on Environmental Protection and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (London: UK Parliament, June 29, 2011).
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmenvaud/710/71002.htm
39. Ibid., paragraph 44.
40. UK Parliament, Report Published on Impact of Overseas Aid on Environmental Protection,” June 29, 2011.
http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-committee/news/report-published-the-impact-of-uk-overseas-aid-on-environmental-protection-and-climate-change-adaptation-and-mitigation/
41. World Bank Annual Report 2011, 11–12.
42. UK Parliament, Environmental Audit Committee—Fifth Report, paragraph 49.
43. Heike Mainhardt-Gibbs, “World Bank Group Energy Sector Financing Update,” Bank Information Center, November 2010.
44. Ibid.
45. Zachary Shahan, “World Bank Approves $3B for World’s 4th Largest Coal Power Plant,” Ecopolitology, April 10, 2010.
http://ecopolitology.org/2010/04/10/world-bank-oks-3b-for-worlds-4th-largest-coal-power-plant/
46. UK Parliament, Environmental Audit Committee—Fifth Report, paragraph 60.
47. Ibid., 28.
48. Ibid., 27.
49. Ibid., 58.
50. Ibid., xvi.
51. The actual increase in the voting share for borrowing, developing countries was modest: a shift of 4.6 percent in voting shares for borrowers in International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which lends to all but the poorest countries (concentrated mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa), to 47.2 percent; as in the past, rich country donors still control the voting majority. See: World Bank, Annual Report 2011, 28. But China’s voting share rose to 4.42 percent, third behind the United States (16.4 percent) and Japan (6.84 percent). (Ibid., “Executive Directors and Alternates of the World Bank and Their Voting Power, June 30, 2011.”) The political clout of China, India, and Brazil on the Bank’s board is not just a function of voting shares, but of their fast-growing influence in the global economy and in other international fora such as the G20.
52. See, e.g.: Sebastian Mallaby, The World’s Banker: A Study of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations (New York: Penguin, 2004). These issues are discussed in later chapters.
53. The Bank’s IEG examined a number of these issues in a 2011 report: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Safeguards and Sustainability Policies in a Changing World (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010). This IEG report and others will be discussed in subsequent chapters.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSAFANDSUS/Resources/Safeguards_eval.pdf
54. World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Global Monitoring Report 2008: MDGs and the Environment (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008), 5, 6.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGLOMONREP2008/Resources/4737994-1207342962709/8944_Web_PDF.pdf
55. Independent Tribunal, Findings, 23.
56. Ibid.,19. It is important to note that the charge is not that the Bank is bribing officials to take certain decisions, but that, from working at the Bank and IMF, they benefit personally and professionally by articulating and carrying out the policies of these institutions, so there are few incentives to raise doubts or questions. After five years as a full staff member at the World Bank or the IMF, an Indian official—or any other professional from a developing nation—vests in the institution’s pension program, which pays a benefit for life that is oftentimes as great as or greater than their government salary when they return to their former jobs.
57. Fraser, As Tigers Near Extinction.
58. Watts, “Putin May Be the Tiger’s Champion.”
59. United Nations Secretary-General, “Twentieth-Century Model ‘A Global Suicide Pact,’ Secretary-General Tells World Economic Forum Session on Redefining Sustainable Development,” SG/SM/13372, EC/186,ENV/DEV/1182 (New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, January 28, 2011).
http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sgsm13372.doc.htm
60. Ibid.
 
Chapter 2 Notes
1. The U.S. Government, during the administration of President Jimmy Carter, was a pioneer in identifying these global environmental concerns already in the late 1970s. Sadly, the Carter administration was perhaps the high point of American international environmental leadership.
2. Address of Barber B. Conable, President, World Bank and International Finance Corporation, to the World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, May 5, 1987 (printed version of the speech released to the press). A detailed description of the events leading up to the Bank’s first wave of environmental reforms, and of major aspects of the reforms themselves, can be found in Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), 107–81.
3. World Bank, The Forest Sector: A World Bank Policy Paper (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1991), 21–22. See also: Uma Lele et al., The World Bank Forest Strategy: Striking the Right Balance (Washington, DC: World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, 2000), 2–4.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/b57456d58aba40e585256ad400736404/f7d852631e3a2b25852569a800654b8c/$FILE/forestry.pdf
4. Robert Wade, “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1970–1995,” in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 2: Perspectives, ed. Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), 612.
The figures on increases in Bank staff, funding for environmental projects and research etc. are from Wade, 612.
5. Ibid., 711.
6. Ibid., 612.
7. Ibid.
8. Korinna Horta, Robin Round, and Zoe Young, “The Global Environment Facility: The First Ten Years—Growing Pains or Inherent Flaws?” report by Environmental Defense and Halifax Initiative, August 2002, 4.
http://www.newgreenorder.info/briefings.htm
9. Wade, 679.
10. Charlotte Streck, “The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,” UN Vision Project on Global Policy Networks, 10. (See also: Charlotte Streck, “The Global Environment Facility: A Role Model for International Governance?” Global Environmental Politics 1, no. 2, 71–94.)
http://www.globalpublicpolicy.net
11. Horta et al., 5.
12. See: Gareth Porter et al., Study of GEF’s Overall Performance, First Overall Performance Study, OPS1 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility, 1999), 69.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/1915
13. RESOLVE, Inc., “Issues Assessment: Incremental Cost Determination for GEF-Funded Projects,” in Global Environment Facility, GEF Council, Progress on Incremental Costs, GEF/C.12.If.4, September 14, 1998, 3, 4, 7; see also: Porter, Study of GEF’s Overall Performance, 70–71.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/documents/GEF.C.12.Inf_.4.pdf
http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/1915
14. Streck, “The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,” 20.
15. The projects are discussed at length in Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 178–80.
16. Susan George, quoted in Tom Athanasiou, Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998), 283.
17. See, for example, Wade, 622.
18. See discussion in Rich, 243.
19. For a good description of the Bank’s role in Stockholm and immediately afterwards, see Wade, 620–23.
20. Wade, 672.
21. Streck, “The Network Structure of the Global Environment Facility,” 23.
22. See: GEP website, thegef.org.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/instrument
23. See: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 261.
24. United Nations Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development (UNCED), Agenda 21, chap. 33, paragraphs 13, 18.
http://www.un-documents.net/a21-33.htm
25. International Monetary Fund, IMF Survey, vol. 29, issue 8 (2000), 172.
26. See, e.g.: United Nations Development Programme, “The Millennium Development Goals: Eight Goals for 2015”; the World Bank’s commitment to the MDGs can be found on its website, Worldbank.org.
http://www.beta.undp.org/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html
http://www.worldbank.org/mdgs
27. Rich, 151, 250.
28. Arundhati Roy, “The Greater Common Good,” April 1999, Narmada.org.
http://www.narmada.org/gcg/gcg.html
29. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review, Chairman, Bradford Morse; Deputy Chairman, Thomas Berger (Ottawa: Resource Future International, 1992), 226, 233–34.
30. Ibid., 53.
31. Ibid., 36.
32. Willi A. Wapenhans et al., “Report of the Portfolio Management Task Force, July 1, 1992” (internal World Bank document), 12, 14.
33. “Statement of E. Patrick Coady, U.S. Executive Director, to an Executive Board Seminar, May 4, 1993” (U.S. Treasury Department, typewritten document, 4 pages).
34. For example, action number 15—“produce report on Bank’s environmental policies and activities”—referred to a public relations environment report the Bank had been already issuing for three years.
35. Action 85 was “provide leadership in implementing the reform plan” and action 86 was “assess implementation progress.”
36. Willi A. Wapenhans, “Efficiency and Effectiveness: Is the World Bank Group Prepared for the Task Ahead?” in Bretton Woods Commission, Bretton Woods: Looking to the Future (Washington, DC: Bretton Woods Commission, July 1994), note 22, C-304.
37. Wade, 704.
38. For an in-depth discussion of the Morse Commission and the Bank’s subsequent withdrawal from the project, see: Wade, 699–709; see also: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 249–54, 301–2; Maartje Van Putten, Policing the Banks: Accountability Mechanisms and the Financial Sector (Montreal, QC, and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queens University Press, 2008), 67–74.
39. World Bank, “Resolution No. 93-10, Resolution No. IDA No. 93-10, September 22, 1993, The World Bank Inspection Panel,” paragraph 12, in Ibrahim F. I. Shihata, The World Bank Inspection Panel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 129.
40. Similar inspection panels, or inspection functions, were established in the other multilateral development banks, as well as in at least three public export credit and investment insurance agencies in recent years, the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Canadian Export Development Corporation (EDC), and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC).
41. See: Wade, 727–28; and see especially: Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 74–81.
42. Interview with Barney Frank, in Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 342–45.
43. Ibid.
44. Horta et al., 13–14.
45. Leif Christoffersen et al., GEF OPS2, 59.
46. Porter et al., GEF OPS 1, xv.
47. Global Environment Facility, GEF Annual Report 2010, 9–10.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/pubs/gef-annual-report-2010
48. Heike Mainhardt-Gibbs, “World Bank Group Energy Sector Financing Update,” Bank Information Center, November 2010, bicusa.org.
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Document.102339.aspx
49. See discussion of the World Bank/GEF Kena Tana River Primate Reserve project in Horta et al., 20–21.
50. World Bank and United Nations Development Program, Reducing Threats to Protected Areas: Lessons from the Field (Washington, DC, and New York: World Bank and United Nations Development Program, 2007), 66.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTBIODIVERSITY/Resources/ReducingThreats-web.pdf
51. Ibid., 65–66.
52. Richard Carlos Worden and Colin Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank–Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, Evaluation Brief 12 (Washington, DC: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group [IEG], 2011), 17, 16.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/C9166A787CE4EA8B852578850055C058/$file/eval_brief_tigers.pdf
53. Global Environment Facility/World Bank, “Proposal for Review: India Ecodevelopment Project,” 1, 4–5 (on Gefonline.org, see link to pdf of “Project Document for WP”).
http://gefonline.org/projectDetailsSQL.cfm?projID=84
54. Worden and Reese, IEG Review of Twenty World Bank–Funded Projects, 16.
55. Ibid.
56. Independent People’s Tribunal on the World Bank in India, Findings of the Jury (New Delhi: Shivaam Sundaram, September 11, 2008), 16–17.
57. P. Devullu et al., “Indigenous and Tribal Communities, Biodiversity Conservation and the Global Environment Facility in India: General Overview and a Case Study of People’s Perspectives of the India Ecodevelopment Project,” May 2, 2005, 1.
http://www.forestpeoples.org/region/india/publication/2010/indigenous-and-tribal-communities-biodiversity-conservation-and-global
58. Ibid.
59. See complaint and eligibility for inspection documents at Worldbank.org.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/0,,contentMDK:22515703~pagePK:64129751~piPK:64128378~theSitePK:380794,00.html
60. Horta et al., 21–22.
61. Ibid.
62. World Bank, “The Inspection Panel Report and Recommendation on Request for Inspection India: Ecodevelopment Project, Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park,” October 21, 1998, 29, paragraph 86.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/0,,contentMDK:22515703~pagePK:64129751~piPK:64128378~theSitePK:380794,00.html
63. Ibid., 13, paragraph 35.
64. For an interesting case study of the complex factors at work undermining the success of the World Bank India Ecodevelopment Project in another one of the seven protected areas, see: Lucie Dejouhanet, “Participatory Eco-Development in Question: The Case of the Parmbikulum Wildlife Sanctuary in Southern India,” Journal of Alpine Research 98, no. 1 (2010).
http://rga.revues.org/index1146.html#tocto1n4
65. Ross Hughs and Fiona Flinton, Integrating Conservation and Development Experience: A Review and Bibliography of the ICDP Literature (London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 2001), 7.
http://www.ucc.ie/famine/GCD/ICDP_sec.pdf
66. Kaavya Varma, “The Asiatic Lion and the Maldharvis of Gir Forest,” 158, citing T. O. McShane and S. A. Newby, “Expecting the Unattainable: The Assumptions behind ICDPs,” in T. O. McShane and M. P. Wells, eds., Getting Biodiversity Projects to Work: Towards More Effective Conservation and Development (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 49–74.
67. See, for example, the Bank Management Comments, in Worden and Reese, IEG Review of 20 World Bank–Funded Projects in Tiger Landscapes, xiii-xvn: “Management notes that the median year of concept review of the 20 reviewed projects is 1997. Some of the design issues noted in the IEG review have been previously identified in other reviews and subsequently addressed. . . .” Nevertheless, “at the same time management recognizes that there is scope for improvement in the monitoring and reporting on environmental impacts during project implementation.” And, yes, “Management appreciates the advice that the Bank should further mainstream biodiversity into sectors that can have significant impacts on biodiversity, such as infrastructure and rural development. Management agrees that mainstreaming biodiversity considerations into the design of Bank-supported projects to complement focused stand-alone biodiversity conservation efforts is key to continue advancing this agenda through proactive support to improve environmental aspects of Bank-supported projects.”
68. Ibid., 5.
69. Nevertheless, the report does put forth as one of its general recommendations that better assessment of the real threats to protected areas is needed.
70. World Bank internal memo, March 26, 1993, quoted in Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008), 28.
71. Ibid., 44–45.
72. Richard Webb, “Demotion and Rededication: 1981 to the Mid-1990s,” in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 2: History, ed. Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), 338.
73. S. Guhan, “The World Bank’s Lending to South Asia,” in The World Bank: Its First Half Century, vol. 1, 382–82.
74. Wade, 733–34.
 
Chapter 3 Notes
1. World Bank, “Meeting of President Wolfensohn with Senior Management, March 12, 1996,” internal World Bank document, 12.
2. World Bank, “Wolfensohn Lays Out Future Direction of World Bank,” News Release No. 96/S21, October 10, 1995.
3. Michael Holman, Patti Walmeir, and Robert Chote,” World Bank Chief Accuses Staff of Resisting Reforms,” Financial Times, March 29, 1996, 1.
4. Michael Holman and Patti Waldmeir, “World Bank Chief’s Cry from the Heart,” Financial Times, March 29, 1996, 4.
5. James D. Wolfensohn, letter to World Bank staff, June 1, 1995, as reported by Al Kamen, “Keep It in the Family,” Washington Post, June 9, 1995.
6. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), 261–62.
7. Ibid., 269.
8. Garry Evans, “The World According to Wolfensohn,” interview, Euromoney, September 1995, 56.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid., 22–23.
11. For example, Charles H. Antholt, a Bank senior agriculturist, concluded in a 1992 study that “without a doubt, T&V is widely considered ineffective,” citing numerous examples of Bank-supported programs in Pakistan, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Malaysia. He noted that the T&V approach “has tended to further institutionalize [agricultural] extension’s top-down hierarchy and centralized management” and that its emphasis on hiring large numbers of extension staff “may have undermined [the] public sector’s long-term sustainability unintentionally” through “the unacceptable strain . . . it puts on public resources.” See: Charles H. Antholt, “Relevancy, Responsiveness and Cost-Effectiveness: Issues for Agricultural Extension in the 21st Century” (unpublished paper), July 1992.
12. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, Project Performance Audit Report, Kenya National Extension Project (Credit 1387-KE), draft report (Washington, DC: World Bank, January 10, 1996), 14.
13. See: Edward W. Cronin, A Natural History of the World’s Deepest Valley (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979).
14. Arun Concerned Group, Request for Inspection, World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, October 24, 1994, 8; available on World Bank website.
15. Ibid., 7; see also: Lori Udall, “Trampling on Nepal,” Multinational Monitor 16, no. 12 (December 1994).
http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1994/12/mm1294_08.html
16. Edward W. Cronin, A Natural History of the World’s Deepest Valley.
17. Arun Concerned Group, Request for Inspection, 2.
18. Eduardo Lachica, “Environmentalists Are Opposing Plans of World Bank to Build Dam in Nepal,” Wall Street Journal, September 12, 1994.
19. Korinna Horta, “Monster of the Himalayas,” Washington Post, November 11, 1994, C4.
20. Martin Karcher, interview with Environmental Defense Fund concerning the Nepal Arun III Hydroelectric Project, September 9, 1994.
21. Ibid.
22. German Federal Audit Office, “FZ-Massnahme mit Nepal; Wasserkraftwerk (WKW) Arun III,” December 19, 1994, 2, 5.
23. Daniel D. Bradlow, “A Test Case for the World Bank,” American University Journal of International Law and Policy 11, no. 2 (1996): 266.
24. World Bank, “World Bank and Nepal to Develop Energy Alternatives to Arun Project,” press release, August 4, 1994. See also: Paul Lewis, “World Bank Cancels Nepal Project Loan,” New York Times, August 16, 1995; Paul Lewis, “World Bank Ends Heyday of the Big Project Loan,” International Herald Tribune, August 17, 1995, 1.
25. Richard E. Bissell, “The Arun III Hydropower Project, Nepal,” in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003), 25–45, 31.
26. Ibid., 40. Also see discussion in Lori Udall, “The World Bank and Public Accountability: Has Anything Changed?” in The Struggle for Accountability: The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge, MA, and London, UK: MIT Press, 1998), 391–436, 416–21.
27. World Bank, “Meeting of President Wolfensohn with Senior Management, March 12, 1996,” internal World Bank document, 12.
28. Daniel J. Shepard, “Donor Countries Back Wolfensohn Debt-Relief Plan, but Financing Still a Problem,” Earth Summit Times, September 29, 1996, 1; Bread for the World Institute, “The Debt Initiative: Sham or Historic Breakthrough?” News and Notices for World Bank Watchers, no. 15, November 1996, 12–14.
29. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, OED Participation Process Review, draft report, April 21, 1999, 12.
30. Ibid., 27–28, 24–25.
31. World Bank, Office Memorandum, “Portfolio Improvement Program: An Update,” November 4, 1996.
32. “Our experiences with the Inspection Panel are teaching us that we have to be increasingly careful in setting policy that we are able to implement in practice.” Myrna Alexander, OPRDR, office memorandum to various World Bank staff, March 15, 1996.
33. World Bank, “Guidance for Communicating the Compact,” internal document for managers, February 1997, World Bank Vice Presidency for External Affairs, 4.
34. Patti Waldmeir, “World Bank Defends $570 Million Restructure Plan,” Financial Times, February 21, 1997, 6.
35. World Bank, “Meeting with Jean-Francois Rischard 10/21/96,” internal staff minutes, 2; the Bank’s FY 1996 internal administrative budget was $733 million ($842 million for FY 1995). See: World Bank, Annual Report 1996 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1996), 170.
36. World Bank, “Questions and Answers About the Networks,” internal staff document, September 16, 1996, 2.
37. Robert Hunter Wade, “The U.S. Role in the Malaise at the World Bank: Get Up, Gulliver!” paper prepared for the G-24, 2001, also presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 22.
38. World Bank, “Meeting with Jean-Francois Rischard 10/21/96 Summary,” 9.
39. Wade, “The U.S. Role in the Malaise at the World Bank,” 2.
40. World Bank Quality Assurance Group, Portfolio Improvement Program, “Portfolio Improvement Program: Reviews of Sector Portfolios and Lending Instruments: A Synthesis,” draft internal report, April 22, 1997, 15.
41. Ibid., 15.
42. World Bank, “Portfolio Improvement Program, Reviews of Sector Portfolios and Lending Instruments,” 20.
43. Ibid., 20–21.
44. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, Effectiveness of Environmental Assessments and National Environmental Action Plans: A Process Study, Report No. 15835 (Washington, DC: World Bank, June 29, 1996), 24, 25, 6–7, 38.
45. Ibid., 6.
46. Ibid., 37.
47. Ibid., 14.
48. Ibid., 8.
49. Ibid., 78.
50. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life, 295.
51. Michelle Celarier, “The Search for the Smoking Gun,” Euromoney, September 1996, 49–52.
52. World Bank/International Monetary Fund 1996 Annual Meetings, Press Release no. 3, Address by James D. Wolfensohn to the Board of Governors of the World Bank Group, at the Joint Annual Discussion, October 1, 1996, 5; Kevin Rafferty, “Calls to Root Out Cancer of Corruption,” Emerging Markets, October 2, 1996, 1.
53. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life, 296.
54. Thomas Kamm, “Nigeria Executions Raise Sanction Threat,” Wall Street Journal, November 13, 1995, A10; John M. Goshko, “U.S. Censures Nigeria’s Execution of Nine Activists, Installs Penalties,” Washington Post, November 11, 1995.
55. “Papua New Guinea: Bank Signals Disquiet over Logging Tax,” Greenwire 5 no. 242 (April 26, 1996); “Papua New Guinea: Bank Withholds Loan Over Logging Fears,” Greenwire 6 no. 113 (October 10, 1996); “Cambodia: Inadequate Logging Policy Delays International Funding,” Greenwire, November 15, 1996.
56. Carol Matlack, “What Happened to the Coal Miners’ Dollars? At Least $100 Million from a World Bank Loan Is Lost,” Business Week, September 8, 1997, 52, 54.
57. John Lloyd, “A Country Where the Awful Has Already Happened,” Financial Times, October 24–25, 1998, xxvi.
58. Jeffrey A. Winters, “Down With the World Bank,” Far Eastern Economic Review, February 13, 1997, 29; Keith Loveard, “The Dark Side of Prosperity: A World Bank Critic Alleges Waste and Graft,” Asia Week, August 15, 1997.
59. Glenn R. Simpson, “World Bank Memo Depicts Diverted Funds, Corruption in Jakarta; Report Contrasts with ’97 Denials,” Wall Street Journal, August 19, 1998, A14.
60. Jane Loos, Regional Manager, EAPCO, “Options to Reduce Negative Impact from Corruption on Bank-Financed Activities,” World Bank office memorandum to Mr. Jean-Michel Severino, Vice President, EAP, October 19, 1998. See also: Stephen Fidler, “World Bank Loans Hit by ‘Corruption,’” Financial Times, December 8, 1998.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/beritamalaysia/message/4157
61. Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarion Press, 2008), 154.
62. World Bank Staff Association, Proposal to Increase Effectiveness of Some Poverty Reduction Targeted Projects, World Bank Staff Association report, undated, “Annex: Bitterness, Disillusion, and Possible Solutions,” quoted in Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending, 145-46.
63. Kay Treakle and Elías Díaz Peña, “Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take? Lessons from the Yacyretá Hydroelectric Project, Argentina/Paraguay,” in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (New York and London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), 69–90, 71.
64. Shirley Christian, “Buenos Aires Journal—Billions Flow to Dam (And Billions Down Drain?),” New York Times, May 4, 1990.
http://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/04/world/buenos-aires-journal-billions-flow-to-dam-and-billions-down-drain.html
65. World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003), 59.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/TenYear8_07.pdf
66. Ibid., 58.
67. Ibid., 60.
68. See: Treakle and and Díaz Peña, “Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?” for the most detailed account of these events; also see: World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On, 58–68.
69. World Bank, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel 10 Years On, 63–65.
70. The World Bank’s Singrauli loans are discussed in greater detail in Mortgaging the Earth, 38–43.
71. Treakle and and Díaz Peña, “Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?” 78.
72. Ibid., 77–78,
73. Ibid., 78.
74. Quoted in Treakle and and Díaz Peña, “Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?” 79; see also: Mark Suzman, “Row Brews Over Bank Role in Dam Project,” Financial Times, May 4, 1998, International Section, 4.
75. Quoted in Treakle and and Díaz Peña, “Accountability at the World Bank: What Does It Take?” 80.
76. Quoted in ibid., 80.
77. Quoted in ibid., 83.
78. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Investigation Report, Paraguay—Reform Project for the Water and Telecommunications Sector (Loan No. 3842-PA); Argentina—SEGBA V Power Distribution Project (Loan No. 2854-AR), Report No. 27995, February 24, 2004, ix, xiii. See also: International Rivers, “World Bank Investigation Confirms Serious Problems at Yacyretá Dam,” May 10, 2004.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/FullInvestigationReport.pdf
79. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Safeguards and Sustainability in a Changing World: An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Experience (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010), 7.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTOED/EXTSAFANDSUS/0,,contentMDK:22708739~menuPK:6120534~pagePK:64829573~piPK:64829550~theSitePK:6120524,00.html
80. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), “Guidelines on Aid and Development, No. 3, Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects” (Paris: OECD, 1992).
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/27/1887708.pdf
81. Alternate U.S. executive director’s statement to the World Bank/IFC board, December 1992, quoted in Susan Park, “Becoming Green: Diffusing Sustainable Development Norms throughout the World Bank Group,” in The World Bank and Governance: A Decade of Reform and Reaction, ed. Diane Stone and Christopher Wright (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), 175.
82. Susan Park, “Becoming Green,” in The World Bank and Governance, 174–76. On the Bío-Bío case see also: David Hunter, Cristián Opaso, and Marco Orellana, “The Biobío’s Legacy: Institutional Reforms and Unfulfilled Promises at the International Finance Corporation,” in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (New York and London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), 115–43.
83. Jay D. Hair, et al., Pangue Hydroelectric Project (Chile): “An Independent Review of the International Finance Corporation’s Compliance with Applicable World Bank Group Environmental and Social Requirements,” internal World Bank Group document, Santiago, Chile, April 4, 1997, 3, 4.
http://www.sdsg.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Pangue-hydroelectric-project.pdf.
84. See: www.equator-principles.com
85. See: “Members & Reporting” and “The Equator Principles: Frequently Asked Questions” at Equator-principles.com.
http://www.equator-principles.com/index.php/members-reporting/members-and-reporting
http://www.equator-principles.com/index.php/about-ep/faqs
86. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Trade and Agricultural Directorate, Trade Committee, Working Party on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees, Revised Council Recommendation on Common Approaches on the Environment and Officially Supported Export Credits, TAD/ECG(2007)9, June 12, 2007. See also, e.g.: Bruce Rich, “Exporting Destruction,” Environmental Forum, September-October 2000, 31–30; Bruce Rich, “A Test Case for Export Finance, Environmental Forum, January-February 2009, 20.
http://search.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf/?cote=TAD/ECG(2007)9&doclanguage=en
87. See, for example: Sebastian Mallaby in The World’s Banker (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004), discussed in chapter 4.
 
Chapter 4 Notes
1. David E. Sanger and Joseph Kahn, “World Bank Criticizes Itself Over Chinese Project Near Tibet, New York Times, June 27, 2000.
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/27/world/world-bank-criticizes-itself-over-chinese-project-near-tibet.html
2. World Bank, “World Bank Approves China Western Poverty Alleviation Project,” Press Release No. 99/2282/EAP, June 24, 1999.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20016088~menuPK:64282137~pagePK:41367~piPK:279616~theSitePK:40941,00.html
3. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, The Qinghai Project, A Component of the China Western Poverty Reduction Project (Credit No. 3255 CHA and Loan No. 4501-CHA), April 28, 2000, xii.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/CHINA-InvestigationReport.pdf
4. Dana Clark and Kay Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” in Demanding Accountability: Civil-Society Claims and the World Bank Inspection Panel, ed. Dana Clark, Jonathan Fox, and Kay Treakle (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003), 211–45, 213–14.
5. Undated letter from Tibetans in Tulan Dzong to “fellow Tibetans living in independent countries,” cited in Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 215.
6. Ibid., 222, 232; see also: David E. Sanger, “Ideas and Trends: Karma and Helms: A Stick for China, a Carrot for Tibet’s Lobby,” New York Times, July 11, 1999.
http://www.nytimes.com/1999/07/11/weekinreview/ideas-trends-karma-and-helms-a-stick-for-china-a-carrot-for-tibet-s-lobby.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
7. “Tibetan Tinderbox,” The Economist, June 17 1999.
http://www.economist.com/node/214447
8. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 221.
9. Ibid., 222.
10. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 223, 237.
11. India remained the largest cumulative borrower.
12. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 224.
13. World Bank, Press Release No. 99/2282/EAP, June 24, 1999.
14. Indira Lakshmanan, “China’s Long March,” Boston Globe, August 22, 1999, cited in Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 226.
15. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 226; BBC News, World: Asia-Pacific, “China Releases Detained Tibet Activist,” August 21, 1999; World Tibet Network News, “Dharamsala Urges Release of Two Detained Foreigners in Tibet (DIIR),” August 20, 1999.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/427119.stm
16. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 227–28.
17. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, The Qinghai Project, Executive Summary, paragraph 38, xxi; paragraphs 53, 60, xxiv, xxvi.
18. Ibid., paragraphs 9, 10, xiv; paragraph 14, xv.
19. Ibid., paragraph 45, xxii–xxiii.
20. “A Misguided World Bank Project, New York Times, July 5, 2000.
http://www.nytimes.com/2000/07/05/opinion/a-misguided-world-bank-project.html
21. Jan Piercy, “Qinghai Component of Western China Poverty Reduction Project: Inspection Panel Report and Management Response,” statement of U.S. executive director to the World Bank, July 6, 2000, cited in Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 233.
22. Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 233; Stefanie Ricarda Roos, “The World Bank Inspection Panel in Its Seventh Year: An Analysis of Its Process, Mandate, and Desirability with Special Reference to the China (Tibet) Case,” in J. A. Frowein and R. Wolfrum, eds., Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, vol. V, 2001 (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001), 473–521, 479.
http://www.mpil.de/shared/data/pdf/pdfmpunyb/roos_5.pdf
23. John Ackerly, International Campaign for Tibet, cited in Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 238.
24. James D. Wolfensohn, A Global Life (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), 325.
25. Ibid., 327.
26. James D. Wolfensohn, meeting between President Wolfensohn and NGOs, including the Bank Information Center and the Center for International Environmental Law, Washington, DC, April 19, 2001, cited in Clark and Treakle, “The China Western Poverty Reduction Project,” 236.
27. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, OED Review of the Bank’s Performance on the Environment, July 5, 2001, 20.
28. Ibid., 23.
29. Ibid., 24–25.
30. This is the definition used by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), an industry-supported organization. See: World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision Making, An Overview, November 16, 2000, 5.
http://www.dams.org/report/wcd_overview.htm
31. Khargram, Dams and Development, 34.
32. Ibid., 34.
33. Ibid., 157.
34. Navroz K. Dubash, Mairi Dupar, Smitu Kothari, and Tundu Lissu, A Watershed in Global Governance? An Independent Assessment of the World Commission on Dams (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, Lokayan, and Lawyer’s Environmental Action Team, 2001), 27–28.
http://pdf.wri.org/wcd_full.pdf
35. Dubash et al., A Watershed in Global Governance? 33.
36. Khargram, Dams and Development, 203, 205.
37. World Commission on Dams, An Overview, 1.
38. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 39.
39. Ibid., 53–53; World Commission on Dams, An Overview, 9.
40. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 48.
41. World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision Making (London, UK, and Sterling, VA: Earthscan, November 2000).
http://www.internationalrivers.org/en/dams-and-development-new-framework-decision
42. Nelson Mandela, “Address on the Occasion of the Launch of the Final Report of the World Commission on Dams,” Cabot Hall, London, November 16, 2000.
43. World Commission on Dams, “Dams and Development,” 13.
44. Ibid., 73, xxxi, 66–68.
45. Ibid., 75–77. The WCD could not come up with a precise figure, citing estimates of between 1 percent and 28 percent of total global greenhouse-gas emissions—the higher figure being obviously quite unlikely.
46. Ibid., 39–41.
47. Ibid., 43, 56.
48. Ibid., 207.
49. Ibid., 208.
50. Ibid., 215.
51. International Labor Organization, C169 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples’ Convention 169, 16.2.
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C169
52. World Commission on Dams, Dams and Development, 221–43.
53. Ibid.
54. International Rivers Network, Protecting Rivers and Rights: The World Commission on Dams Recommendations in Action Briefing Kit (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, July 2010), 3.
http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/WCDbriefingkit_0.pdf
55. International Rivers Network, Citizen’s Guide to the World Commission on Dams (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, 2002), 13–15.
56. Dubash et al., A Watershed for Global Governance, 111, 116, note 61.
57. Nirmalya Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India: Between Global Norms and Local Practices, Discussion Paper 10, Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik ISSN 1860-0441 (Bonn: Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungs Politik, 2010), 12, 26. Choudhury notes, “In the line it follows, in the principles it formulates and in the approach it adopts to human and constitutional rights, the National Working Group’s 1989 draft policy . . . is similar to the report published by the WCD in 2000.” (Ibid., 26.)
http://indiagovernance.gov.in/files/DP_10.2010.pdf
58. R. R. Iyer, “Towards a Just Displacement and Rehabilitation Policy,” Economic and Political Weekly 42, no. 30 (July 29, 2007), quoted in Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India, 13.
59. Waltina Scheumann, German Development Institute Department of Environmental Policy and Natural Resources Management, Foreword, in Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India.
60. World Bank, Water Resources Sector Strategy: Strategic Directions for World Bank Engagement (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004), 38.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/06/01/000090341_20040601150257/Rendered/PDF/28114.pdf
61. NGO Letter to the World Bank, Follow-up to the World Commission on Dams, March 19, 2001; see: Rivernet.org.
http://www.rivernet.org/general/wcd/ngoletter.htm
62. World Bank, Water Resources Sector Strategy, 38.
63. Ibid.
64. Ibid., 46.
65. Ibid., 46–47.
66. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Uganda Third Power Project, Fourth Power Project, and Proposed Bujagali Hydropower Project (2001), May 23, 2002, 76.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/UGANDAIRMainReport.pdf
67. See Request for Inspection, Uganda National Associate of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) and Save Bujagali Crusade, to Executive Secretary, Inspection Panel, World Bank Group, July 15, 2001.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Uganda_Bujagali_2001_REQUEST_FOR_INSPECTION.pdf
68. World Bank, “Summary of the Discussion of the Joint Meeting of Executive Directors of the Bank and IDA and the Board of Directors of IFC,” December 18, 2001, 19, quoted in Environmental Defense, Friends of the Earth, International Rivers Network, Gambling with People’s Lives: What the World Bank’s New “High-Risk/High-Reward Strategy Means for the Poor and the Environment, 2003, 31.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources/EDhighrisk.pdf
69. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Uganda Third Power Project, Fourth Power Project, and Proposed Bujagali Hydropower Project, 57.
70. See: International Rivers Network, “A Review of the World Bank’s Inspection Panel Report on the Bujagali Hydroelectric Power Project,” June 10, 2002, 7–8.
71. Republic of Uganda, In the High Court of Uganda at Kampala, HCT-00-CV-MC-0139 of 2001 Greenwatch (U) Limited, Applicant, versus Attorney General, Respondents, Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Ltd, Before: The Honourable Mr. Justice FMS Egonda-Ntende, Ruling, November 12, 2002.
http://www.right2info.org/cases/UgandacasereDamagreementjudgment2002.doc
72. Prayas Energy Group of Pune, India, “The Bujagali Power Purchase Agreement—An Independent Review: A Study of Techno-Economic Aspects of the Power Purchase Agreement of the Bujagali Hydroelectric Project in Uganda” (Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, November 20, 2002), 2, 3.
http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/bujagalippa-review.pdf
73. Peter Bosshard, International Rivers Network, personal communication, February 10, 2012.
74. United States Securities Exchange Commission, Form 10-Q, The AES Corporation, Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2003, 18.
http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/874761/000110465903017847/a03-1517_110q.htm
75. Ibid., 16–18.
76. Corpwatch, “AES Backs Out of Bujagali Dam Project,” August 28, 2003.
http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=8250
77. See, e.g.: Rich, Mortgaging the Earth, 26–29, 34–38.
78. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department (OED), The World Bank Forest Strategy: Striking the Right Balance (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000), xx, 8.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/b57456d58aba40e585256ad400736404/f7d852631e3a2b25852569a800654b8c/$FILE/forestry.pdf
79. Ibid., 5.
80. Ibid., 47.
81. Ibid., 27.
82. Ibid., 28.
83. Herman Daly, “The Perils of Free Trade,” Scientific American 269, no. 5 (November 1993): 50–57.
http://www.redfortyeight.com/2010/01/27/the-perils-of-free-trade/
84. Jagwash Bhagati, “The Case for Free Trade,” Scientific American 269, no. 5 (November 1993): 42–49; the World Bank perspective was set out in the Bank’s1992 World Development Report: Development and the Environment (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1992).
85. World Bank OED, The World Bank Forest Strategy, xxiii–xxv.
86. Ibid., 31.
87. World Bank Operational Manuel, “OP 4.36—Forests,” November 2002.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20064668~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184~isCURL:Y,00.html
88. World Bank Operations Manuel, “OP 8.60—Development Policy Lending,” August 2004; see discussion in Korinna Horta, “Forests and Structural Adjustment,” in Broken Promises: How World Bank Group Policies and Practice Fail to Protect Forests and Forest Peoples’ Rights (Rainforest Foundation, 2005), 43–46, and Ricardo Carrere and Marcus Colchester, “The World Bank and Forests,” in Broken Promises, 4–5.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20240031~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184~isCURL:Y~isCURL:Y,00.html
89. Indigenous Pygmy Organizations and Pygmy Support Organizations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, “Request Submitted to the World Bank Inspection Panel,” Kinshasa-DRC, Kinshasa-DRC, October 30, 2005, 3; see World Bank references in footnotes 3–6.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/RequestforInspectionEnglish.pdf
90. Ibid. 9–10; see also: Banque Mondial, Republique Democratique du Congo, Sector Forestial, Mission de Suivi Sectoriel (17–27 Avril, 2002), Aide-Memoire, 4.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex07.pdf
91. World Bank, Technical Annex for a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 117.0 Million (US $164 Million Equivalent) and a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 35.7 Million (US $50 Million Equivalent) to the Democratic Republic of the Congo for an Emergency Economic and Social Reunification Project, August 14, 2003, Report No: T7601-ZR), 29, 85.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex01Annex03.pdf
92. Letter of CENADEP (Centre National d’Appui au Développement et à la Participation Populaire) and CNONGD (Conseil National des Organisations Non-Gouvernementales de Développement du Congo), to Monsieur le Représentant Résident de la Banque Mondiale à Kinshasa-Gombe, and others, Kinshasa, February 12, 2004.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/Annex18.pdf
93. Indigenous Pygmy Organizations, “Request,” 11; see also: Simon Counsell, Rainforest Foundation, “Democratic Republic of Congo—After the War, the Fight for the Forest,” in Broken Promises, 11–19, 15.
94. ARD, Conflict Timber: Dimensions of the Problem in Asia and Africa, vol. III, African Cases, DRCongo Case study (Burlington, VT: USAID/ARD, May 2003), 16, 17.
http://www.rainforestfoundationuk.org/files/ARD%20report%20vol3afr.pdf
95. Ibid., 41.
96. Rainforest Foundation, transcript, “VIDEO-CONFÉRENCE Concerning the Role of the World Bank in the Forest Sector of the Democratic Republic of Congo with Mr. James Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank,” July 8, 2004, 4.
http://www.rainforestfoundationuk.org/files/Transcription%20of%20video%20conference%208.07.04.pdf
97. Rainforest Foundation, videoconference with James D. Wolfensohn, 13.
98. Ibid., 10.
99. Ibid., 12–13.
100. Greenpeace International, “Forest Crime File: Danzer Involved in Bribery and Illegal Logging; Greenpeace Investigation Reveals Swiss-German Company Bribing Officials in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Republic of Congo” (Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, June 2004).
http://www.wrm.org.uy/deforestation/logging/danzergroup.pdf
101. Rainforest Foundation, videoconference with James D. Wolfensohn, 14.
102. Ibid., 14–15.
103. Ibid., 16.
104. Ibid., 18.
105. World Bank Inspection Panel, Investigation Report, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Transitional Support for Economic Recovery Grant (TSERO) (IDA Grant No. H 1920-DRC) and Emergency Economic and Social Reunification Support Project (EESRSP) (Credit No. 3824-DRC and Grant No. H 064-DRC) (Washington, DC: World Bank, August 31, 2007), 129–30.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/FINALINVREPwhole.pdf
106. Ibid., xiv, xxi.
107. Ibid., 91.
108. Ibid., 108.
109. World Bank News Release, “World Bank Board Discusses Inspection Panel Investigation of Forest Sector Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo: World Bank Committed to Staying Engaged in Improving Management of Congolese Forests,” News Release No. 2008/188/AFR.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/PRESSRELEASEJAN2008.pdf
110. World Bank, “Progress Report to the Board of Executive Directors on the Implementation of the Management’s Action Plan in Response to the Democratic Republic of Congo Inspection Panel Investigation Report on Transitional Support for Economic Recovery Project and the Emergency Social and Economic Reunification Project,” March 11, 2009; World Bank, “Second Progress Report to the Board of Executive Directors on the Implementation of Management’s Action Plan in Response to the Democratic Republic of Congo Inspection Panel Investigation Report on Transitional Support for Economic Recovery Project and the Emergency Social and Economic Reunification Project,” March 2011.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTINSPECTIONPANEL/Resources/DRC_Forests_First_Progress_Report.pdf
111. See, e.g.: Greenpeace International, “Stolen Future: Conflicts and Logging in Congo’s Rainforests—the Case of Danzer” (Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2011).
http://allafrica.com/download/resource/main/main/idatcs/00021860:27f01f38b7e3ee147d44fc63a4d38665.pdf
 
Chapter 5 Notes
1. William H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Peru, vol. II, ed. Wilfred Harold Munro (Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1874, 1904), 130.
http://www.archive.org/stream/conquestofperu02presiala#page/n9/mode/2up
2. Ibid., 138–39.
3. Steven Herz, Antonio La Viña, Jonathan Sohn, eds., Development without Conflict: The Business Case for Community Consent (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, May 2007), 40.
http://pdf.wri.org/development_without_conflict_fpic.pdf
4. Ibid., 41.
5. Ibid., 42.
6. Jane Perlez and Lowell Bergman, “Tangled Strands in Fight Over Peru Gold Mine,” New York Times, October 25, 2005.
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/health/25iht-web.1025gold2.complete.html?pagewanted=all
7. Environmental Defense, Friends of the Earth, International Rivers Network, Gambling with People’s Lives: What the World Bank’s New “High-Risk/High-Reward Strategy Means for the Poor and the Environment (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense, September 2003), 16, 18, note 47.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources/EDhighrisk.pdf
8. World Bank Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman (CAO), The CAO at 10, Annual Report 2010 and Review FY 2000–10 (Washington, DC: World Bank Group Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman, 2010), 104.
http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/publications/documents/CAO_10Year_AR_web.pdf
9. Friends of the Earth International, The CAO in Peru: Lessons Learned from Dialogue as a Strategy to Reduce Conflict (Amsterdam: Friends of the Earth International, 2006), 9; Emily Caruso, Marcus Colchester, Fergus Mackay, Nick Hildyard, and Geoff Nettleton, “Synthesis Paper,” in Tebtebba, Indigenous Peoples’ International Center for Policy Research and Education, and Forest Peoples Programme, Extracting Promises: Indigenous Peoples, Extractive Industries, and the World Bank (Baguio City, Philippines: Tebtebba Foundation, 2003), 17–170, 107.
http://www.foei.org/en/resources/publications/miscellaneous/cao_cajamarca.pdf/view
http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2010/10/eirinternatwshopsynthesisrepengmay03_0.pdf
10. “Halting the Rush against Gold: Big Mining and Its Increasingly Radical Opponents,” The Economist, February 3, 2005; Herz et al., Development without Conflict, 43.
http://www.economist.com/node/3627092
11. Herz et al., Development without Conflict, 45.
12. “Protests in Peru, Honeymoon Over: Ollanta Humala Struggles to Contain Opposition to Mining Projects,” The Economist, November 19, 2011; “Mining in Peru, Doing the Conga: The President Takes On the Protesters,” December 10, 2011.
http://www.economist.com/node/21541420
13. “Peru: Videomania,” The Economist, February 8, 2001.
http://www.economist.com/node/498799
14. See, e.g.: Human Rights Watch, “Peru: Montesinos Asylum Claim, Panama Should Prosecute Former Peruvian Spymaster for Torture,” September 27, 2000; George Washington University, National Security Archive Briefing Book No. 37, “Fujimori’s Rasputin: The Declassified Files on Peru’s Former Intelligence Chief, Vladimir Montesinos,” November 22, 2000.
http://www.hrw.org/news/2000/09/26/peru-montesinos-asylum-claim
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB37/
15. Perlez and Bergman, “Tangled Strands in the Fight over Peru Gold Mine.”
16. Ibid.; see also: PBS Frontline, “Peru: The Curse of Inca Gold,” October 2005.
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/peru404/thestory.html
17. Perlez and Bergman, “Tangled Strands in Fight Over Peru Gold Mine.”
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. See, e.g.: Herz et al., Development without Conflict.
21. In 1998, a year of increased World Bank Group lending to stem the Asian financial crisis, financial commitments for mining, oil and gas totaled around 5 percent of new commitments, and 15.6 percent of IFC commitments. The year 2002 marked a low point for new extractive finance, totaling around 2 percent for the entire World Bank Group, and 3 percent for the IFC. Following 2002 World Bank Group extractive industry finance would again increase, doubling by 2006.
22. World Bank Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman (CAO), The CAO at 10, 92–101.
23. Jeffrey D. Sachs and Andrew M. Warner, “Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth,” Development Discussion Paper No. 517a (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Institute for International Development, October 1995), 2, 21.
http://www.cid.harvard.edu/hiid/517.pdf
24. Monica Weber-Fahr, Treasure or Trouble? Mining in Developing Countries (Washington, DC: World Bank and International Finance Corporation, 2002), 7.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/treasureortrouble.pdf
25. Michael L. Ross, “Comments on ‘Treasure or Trouble? Mining in Developing Countries,’ submitted to the World Bank Extractive Industries Review,” 3, cited in Scott Pegg, Poverty Reduction or Poverty Exacerbation? World Bank Group Support for Extractive Industries in Africa (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense, 2003), 8.
http://secure.environmentaldefense.org/documents/2737_2737_PovertyRedux2.pdf
26. See, inter alia: Michael Ross, Extractive Sectors and the Poor (Boston: Oxfam America, October 2001); and Pegg, Poverty Reduction or Poverty Exacerbation? 8–16.
http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/polisci/faculty/ross/oxfam.pdf
27. Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 17–52.
28. Andrés Liebenthal, Roland Michelitsch, and Ethel Tarazona, World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005), 202.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/ieg.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Extractive+Industries+and+Sustainable+Development/$FILE/Extractive_Industries_and_Sustainable_Development.pdf
29. Bank Information Center, Bretton Woods Project, Campagna per la riforma della Banca Mondiale, “The World Bank Group’s Gold Mining Operations: Tarnished Gold—Mining and the Unmet Promise of Development” (Washington, DC: Bank Information Center, September 2006), 4.
http://www.solidarite.lu/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Tarnished-Gold.pdf
30. Desmond Tutu, quoted on cover page, Korinna Horta, Samuel Nguiffo, and Delphine Djiraibe, The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Call for Accountability (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense, June 2002); also see: Paul Brown, “Chad Oil Pipeline Under Attack for Harming the Poor,” The Guardian, September 26, 2002.
http://allafrica.com/download/resource/main/main/idatcs/00010046:91022eb69020e82d9a0600dd218e04f8.pdf
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2002/sep/27/internationalnews
31. World Bank, Project Information Document (PID), Chad-Petroleum Development and Pipeline, Project ID TDPA534, April 4, 1995; Exxon Corporation, “Exxon’s Chad Doba Project,” internal World Bank document, August 15, 1996.
32. Exxon Corporation, “Exxon’s Chad Doba Project,” internal Exxon document, August 15, 1996, cited in Korinna Horta, The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: Putting People and the Environment at Risk (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense Fund, September 1999), 1.
http://apps.edf.org/documents/728_ChadCameroon_pipeline.pdf
33. Howard W. French, “Chad: Every Silver Lining Has a Cloud,” International Herald Tribune, June 12, 1996, 2; Economist Intelligence Unit, “Country Report: Chad,” 3rd Quarter Report, 1996.
34. Korinna Horta, Samuel Nguiffo, and Delphine Djiraibe, The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Project Non-Completion Report (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense, April 2007), 9.
http://apps.edf.org/documents/6282_ChadCameroon-Non-Completion.pdf
35. Korinna Horta and Scott Coverdale, “Dams and Distress for Kingdom in the Sky,” People & the Planet 5, no. 3: 24–25.
36. Lori Pottinger, “Police Kill Striking Dam Workers in Lesotho,” World Rivers Review 11, no. 4 (September 1996): 1, 11.
37. Brown, “Chad Oil Pipeline Under Attack,” The Guardian, September 27, 2002.
38. Claudia Frank and Lena Guesnet, Brief 41—“We Were Promised Development and All We Got Is Misery”—The Influence of Petroleum on Conflict Dynamics in Chad (Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversation, December 2009), 25.
, http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief41/brief41.pdf
39. Exxon and Mobil merged in December 1999.
40. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, The World Bank Group Program of Support for the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Construction Program Performance Assessment Report, Chad (WB Loan 4558-CD; IDA Credits 3373-CD and 3316-CD; IFC Loan 4338), Cameroon (WB Loan 7020-CM; IDA Credit 3372-CM; IFC Loan 4338), Chad IFC Advisory Services (537745, 534603, 533974) (Washington, DC: World Bank, November 20, 2009), 5.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOED/Resources/ChadCamReport.pdf
41. Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Project Non-Completion Report, 7.
42. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, The World Bank Group Program of Support for the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Construction Program, 5.
43. “Africa Oil and Gas Deal of the Year 2001—Chad-Cameroon Pipeline,” Project Finance, February 1, 2002.
http://www.projectfinancemagazine.com/Article/2416183/Africa-Oil-and-Gas-Deal-of-the-Year-2001-Chad-Cameroon-Pipeline.html
44. Statement of U.S. Executive Director, World Bank, June 6, 2000, quoted in Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Call for Accountability, 5.
45. World Bank and International Finance Corporation, Project Appraisal Document on Proposed International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Loans in Amounts of US$39.5 Million to the Republic of Chad and US$53.4 Million to the Republic of Cameroon and on Proposed International Finance Corporation Loans in Amounts of US$ 100 Million in A-Loans and up to US$300 Million in B-Loans to the Tchad Oil Transportation Company, S.A. and Cameroon Oil Transportation Company, S.A. for a Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project, Report No. 19343 AFR (Washington, DC: World Bank, April 13, 2000), 12, 121.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2000/10/21/000094946_00102111244720/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
46. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Chad, 1999; U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Chad, 2000.
http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/af/742.htm
47. Frank and Guesnet, Brief 41—“We Were Promised Development,” 26–28; Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Project Non-Completion Report, 12.
48. Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Project Non-Completion Report, 11; see also: World Bank and IFC, Project Appraisal Document Chad, Cameroon, 17.
49. Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: A Call for Accountability, 2; World Bank and IFC, Project Appraisal Document Chad, Cameroon, 141, 145.
50. World Bank and IFC, Project Appraisal Document Chad, Cameroon, 150.
51. Amnesty International, Contracting Out of Human Rights: The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project (London: Amnesty International UK, September 2005).
http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/af/742.htm
52. Netherlands Committee for IUCN Symposium, Liability for Environmental Damage and the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project, the Netherlands Institute of International Relations, the Hague, February 25, 2000, cited in Maartje Van Putten, Policing the Banks: Accountability Mechanisms for the Financial Sector (Montreal, Kingston, London, Ithaca: McGill-Queens University Press, 2008), 225, note 50, 456.
53. Serge A. Bronkhorst, ed., Liability for Environmental Damage and the World Bank’s Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project: Selected Papers of the NC-IUCN Symposium (Amsterdam: Netherlands Committee for IUCN, 2000), Annex II, 112–13, cited in Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 226–27.
http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=SEE_ALSO&QF0=Descriptor&QI0==%22Pipelines%22&XC=/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll&BU=%3Ca+href%3D&TN=iucn&SN=AUTO4002&SE=950&RN=0&MR=0&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&CS=1&XP=&RF=WebAff&EF=&DF=WebAff&RL=0&EL=0&DL=0&NP=1&ID=&MF=&MQ=&TI=0&DT=&ST=0&IR=2268&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&BG=&FG=&QS=&OEX=ISO-8859-1&OEH=ISO-8859-1
54. Ibid.
55. Bronkhorst, Liability for Environmental Damage, 115, cited in Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 226.
56. James D. Wolfensohn, interview with Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 352.
57. Frank and Guesnet, Brief 41—“We Were Promised Development,” 51.
58. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Africa, The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline: A New Model for Natural Resource Development, hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa of the Committee on International Relations, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., April 18, 2002, Serial No. 107-75, Statement of Peter Roseblum, Director, Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, 37, 46.
http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa78803.000/hfa78803_0.htm
59. Ibid., 45.
60. Dino Mahtani, “World Bank Concern Over Chad’s Plan for Oil Revenues,” Financial Times, October 27, 2005.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/e08637e0-4686-11da-8880-00000e2511c8.html#axzz1msT0ffVb
61. J. Millard Burr and Robert O. Collins, Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster, 2d ed. (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008), 307.
62. Frank and Guesnet, Brief 41—“We Were Promised Development,” 53.
63. Ibid., 47, 48; see note 73, 48.
64. Reuters, “Chad Decrees Avoid World Bank Controls-Analysts,” February 28, 2008.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/02/28/idUSL28883018
65. World Bank statement, quoted in Xan Rice, “World Bank Cancels Pipeline Deal with Chad after Revenues Misspent,” The Guardian, September 11, 2008.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/12/worldbank.oil
66. Lydia Polgreen, “World Bank Ends Effort to Help Chad Ease Poverty,” New York Times, September 11, 2008.
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/11/world/africa/11chad.html?ref=africa
67. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, The World Bank Group Program of Support for the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Construction Program Performance Assessment Report, Report No. 50315, 38, viii, 24.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOED/Resources/ChadCamReport.pdf
68. Ibid., xv.
69. Ibid., xi.
70. Ibid., 16.
71. Ibid., 19–20.
72. Ibid., 29.
73. Horta et al., The Chad-Cameroon Oil & Pipeline Project: A Project Non-Completion Report, 19–20; World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, The World Bank Group Program of Support for the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Construction Program Performance Assessment Report, 30, 63.
74. Brown, “Chad Oil Pipeline Under Attack for Harming the Poor.”
75. International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), Industry as a Partner for Sustainable Development: Oil and Gas (London: International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, and United Nations Environment Programme, 2002), 1, 33–34, 37–38.
http://www.unep.fr/scp/csd/wssd/docs/sectors/final/oil-gas.pdf
76. James D. Wolfensohn, interview with Van Putten, Policing the Banks, 352–54.
 
Chapter 6 Notes
1.              Kate Connoly, “World Bank and IMF Cut Short Prague Meeting,” The Guardian, September 27, 2000.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2000/sep/28/imf.economics
2.              Tamara Straus, “The Anti-Globalization Movement Gets Global,” Alternet, October 3, 2000.
http://www.alternet.org/story/9889/the_antiglobalization_movement_gets_global/
3. Letter from James D. Wolfensohn, President, World Bank, to Dr. Emil Salim, Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia, January 17, 2002.
4. See: World Bank, Oil, Gas, Mining Unit, “Extractive Industries Review Reports.”
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTOGMC/0,,contentMDK:20306686~menuPK:592071~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336930~isCURL:Y,00.html
5. Moreover, the EIR report reinforced a number of key findings of a concurrent report of the OED upon extractives, which came out in the summer of 2003. The OED report was reissued in book form in 2005; see: Andrés Liebenthal, Roland Michelitsch, Ethel Tarazona, World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, IFC Operations Evaluation Group, and MIGA Operations Evaluation Unit, Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005).
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/ieg.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/Extractive+Industries+and+Sustainable+Development/$FILE/Extractive_Industries_and_Sustainable_Development.pdf
6. Extractive Industries Review, Striking a Better Balance, vol. I: The World Bank Group and Extractive Industries—The Final Report of the Extractive Industries Review (Jakarta, Indonesia, and Washington, DC: Extractive Industries Review, December 2003), 12. http://irispublic.worldbank.org/85257559006C22E9/All+Documents/85257559006C22E985256FF6006843AB/$File/volume1english.pdf
7. Ibid., 14, 17.
8. Ibid., 1.
9. Ibid., 2.
10. Ibid., 3–6.
11. Ibid., 5.
12. Ibid., 6.
13. Ibid., 64–65.
14. Nicole Itano, “Proposal to Limit Oil and Coal Projects Draws Fire,” New York Times, March 24, 2004; Demetri Sevastopulo, “Banks contest ban proposed for coal and oil extraction,” Financial Times, April 5, 2004.
http://www.minesandcommunities.org/article.php?a=1996
15. Letter from Jody Williams, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Rigoberta Menchu Tum, Sir Joseph Rotblat, Betty Williams, and Mairead Maguire, to James Wolfensohn, President, World Bank Group, February 8, 2004; Letter from Global Legislators for a Balance Environment to James Wolfensohn, President, World Bank Group, March 16, 2004; Letter from Julie Tanner, Coordinator of Corporate Advocacy, Christian Brothers Investment Services, Lauren Compere, Chief Administrative Officer, Boston Common Asset Management, et al., to James Wolfensohn, President, World Bank Group, March 10, 2004; Letter from Monica Frassoni, Deputado al Parlamento Europeo, et al. to James Wolfensohn, President, World Bank Group, April 2, 2004; European Parliament Resolution on the World Bank-commissioned Extractive Industries Review, PE 344.189, April 1, 2004.
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=MOTION&reference=B5-2004-0166&language=EN
16. World Bank, “Striking a Better Balance—The World Bank Group and the Extractive Industries: The Final Report of the Extractive Industries Review, World Bank Group Management Response” (Washington, DC: World Bank, September 17, 2004).
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOGMC/Resources/finaleirmanagementresponse.pdf
17. Ibid., iv–vii.
18. Ibid., v.
19. Ibid., iv.
20. Ibid., 36, 38.
21. Bank Information Center, Bretton Woods Project, Campagna per la Riforma della Banca Mondiale, “The World Bank Group’s Gold Mining Operations: Tarnished Gold,” 3–4.
22. See, e.g.: BBC, “Timeline: Guatemala, A Chronology of Key Events,” January 15, 2012.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1215811.stm
23. International Finance Corporation / Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman, Assessment of a complaint submitted to CAO in relation to the Marlin Mining Project in Guatemala (Washington, DC: Office of the Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman International Finance Corporation / Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, September 7, 2005), 20, 27, 34–37.
http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/CAO-Marlin-assessment-English-7Sep05.pdf
24. IFC/MIGA Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman, CAO Follow-up Assessment, Guatemala, Complaint Regarding the Marlin Mining Project (Washington, DC: IFC/MIGA Compliance Advisor Ombudsman, May 2006), 3, 14.
http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/CAOFOLLOWUPASSESSMENTGUATEMALAComplaintRegardingMarlinMiningProject_May2006.pdf
25. Dawn Paley, “Turning Down a Gold Mine,” The Tyee, February 7, 2007; Guatemala Solidarity Network, “Urgent Action: Flaviano Bianchini, Environmental Activist,” blog posting, January 28, 2007.
http://thetyee.ca/News/2007/02/07/MarlinProject
http://gsn.civiblog.org/blog/_archives/2007/1/28/2689317.html
26. Zarsky and Stanley, Searching for Gold in the Highlands of Guatemala, 12; Bretton Woods Project “Undermining Development?” Bretton Woods Update No. 72, September-October 2010, 2; Ahni (John Ahniwanika Schertow), “If Goldcorp Cares So Much, It Should Shut Down the Marlin Mine,” Intercontinental Cry, June 14, 2011.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/update/72/bwupdt72.pdf
http://intercontinentalcry.org/if-goldcorp-cares-so-much-it-should-shut-down-the-marlin-mine/
27. Goldcorp Out of Guatemala, “36 European Civil Society Organizations and Networks Ask Swedish and Norwegian Pension Funds to Support Shareholder Resolution,” May 13, 2011.
http://goldcorpoutofguatemala.com/2011/05/13/36-european-civil-society-organisations-and-networks-ask-swedish-and-norwegian-pension-funds-to-support-shareholder-resolution/
28. Ahni, “If Goldcorp Cares So Much.”
29. Johan Van de Wauw, Roel Evens, and Lieven Machiels, “Are Groundwater Overextraction and Reduced Infiltration Contributing to Arsenic-Related Health Problems Near the Marlin Mine (Guatemala)?” University of Ghent, October 14, 2010, 1, 2–4.
http://catapa.be/files/marlin.pdf
30. Niladri Basu and Howard Hu, with the assistance of the International Forensic Program of Physicians for Human Rights, Toxic Metals and Indigenous Peoples Near the Marlin Mine in Western Guatemala: Potential Exposures and Impacts on Health (Cambridge, MA, and Washington, DC, May 2010), 3.
http://goldcorpoutofguatemala.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/guatemala-toxic-metals.pdf
31. On Common Ground Consultants Inc., Human Rights Assessment of Goldcorp’s Marlin Mine (Vancouver BC: May 2010), 52, 60, 180, 213.
http://www.hria-guatemala.com/en/docs/Human%20Rights/OCG_HRA_Marlin_Mine_May_17.pdf
32. Ibid, 34, 137, 149.
33. Bank Information Center, “World Bank Implicated in Controversial DR Congo Mining Contracts,” November 22, 2006; Dino Mahtani, “World Bank Faces Questions Over Congo Mining Contracts,” Financial Times, November 17, 2006; Dino Mahtani, “Transparency Fears Lead to Review of Congo Contracts,” Financial Times, January 3, 2007.
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Article.3021.aspx
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f16910e8-75e0-11db-aea1-0000779e2340.html#axzz1niIpjmLs
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c918d3a2-9a8a-11db-bbd2-0000779e2340.html#axzz1niIpjmLs
34. John le Carré and Jason Sterns, “Getting Congo’s Wealth to Its people,” Boston Globe, December 22, 2006.
https://secure.pqarchiver.com/boston/access/1184631321.html?FMT=FT&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Dec+22%2C+2006&author=&pub=&desc=Getting+Congo%27s+wealth+to+its+people
35. Bank Information Center, “IFC to Double Number of Mining Investments in Africa,” March 14, 2007.
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Article.3215.aspx
36. Bretton Woods Project,” Honest Broker? The IFC, Extractive Industries, and Affected Communities,” Bretton Woods Update No. 56, May-June 2007, 4.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/update/56/bwupdt56.pdf
37. Bank Information Center, “Newmont Prepares Mining Operations in Ghana Forest Reserve,” June 21, 2008; Bank Information Center, “IFC’s Support for Newmont’s Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana.”
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Article.3821.aspx
http://www.bicusa.org/en/Project.Concerns.23.aspx
38. Bretton Woods Project, “IFC’s Mining Investments: A Black Hole for Human Rights?” Bretton Woods Update No. 70, March-April 2010, 7.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/update/70/bwupdt70.pdf
39. Nii Ashie Kotey and Poku Adusei, “The Newmont and AngloGold Mining Projects,” in Sheldon Leader and David M. Ong, Global Project Finance, Human Rights, and Sustainable Development (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press), 467; John Hillebrand, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Review: Newmont Ahafo South Project 28/12/05, 1, 3, cited in Kotey and Adusei, “The Newmont and AngloGold Mining Projects,” 478.
40. Environment News Service, “Newmont Gold Mine to Pay Ghana Millions for Cyanide Spill,” January 22, 2010.
http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jan2010/2010-01-22-01.html
41. Ghanaweb, “15 Killed in Course of Newmont Ahafo Mine Operations,” November 8, 2010.
http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=197006
42. Nick Magel, “Wikileaks Cables Reveal U.S. Mining Co. Negligence in Ghana Cyanide Spill,” Earthworks, September 12, 2011; see: Earthworksaction.org.
http://www.earthworksaction.org/earthblog/detail/wikileaks_cables_reveal_us_mining_co_negligence_in_ghana_cyanide_spill
43. Kotey and Adusei, “The Newmont and AngloGold Mining Projects,” 489.
44. Sebastian Mallaby, “NGOs: Fighting Poverty, Hurting the Poor,” Foreign Policy, no. 144, September-October 2004, 50–52, 55.
45. Ibid., 52.
46. See, e.g.: Bretton Woods Project, “Bank, Fund Annual Meetings: The ‘Mallaby Effect,’” Bretton Woods Project Update 43, November 22, 2004.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/article.shtml?cmd[126]=x-126-82997
47. Sebastian Mallaby, The World’s Banker: A Story of Failed States, Financial Crises, and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations (New York: Penguin Press, 2004).
48. See, e.g.: Jessica Einhorn, “The World Bank’s Mission Creep,” Foreign Affairs 80., no. 5 (September-October 2001): 22–35.
49. Sebastian Mallaby, “Saving the World Bank,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 3: 75–85, 85.
50. Mallaby, “NGOS: Fighting Poverty, Hurting the Poor,” 57.
51. World Bank, Cost of Doing Business: Fiduciary and Safeguard Policies and Compliance, July 16, 2001, vi.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/07/01/000333037_20110701005627/Rendered/PDF/630810BR0SecM20C000disclosed0today0.pdf
52. Author’s calculations based on total and incremental cost estimates in Ibid., 9.
53. Richard Lugar, Chairman, U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, “Opening Statement Concerning Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks,” May 13, 2004; see: Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearing: Combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., May 13, 2004; see also: Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearing: Combating Multilateral Development Bank Corruption: U.S. Treasury Role and Internal Efforts, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., July 21, 2004.
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/LugarStatement040513.pdf
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/hearings/combating-corruption-in-the-multilateral-development-banks
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/hearings/hearing/?id=e457ba0e-ca62-43aa-e433-5fa39c600ce1
54. Mallaby, The World’s Banker, 357; “NGOS: Fighting Poverty, Hurting the Poor,” 57–58.
55. Mallaby, “NGOS: Fighting Poverty, Hurting the Poor,” 52.
56. Ibid., 52, 54.
57. Mallaby, “Saving the World Bank,” 85.
58. Jim MacNeil, Former Chairman, World Bank Inspection Panel, letter to the editor, Foreign Policy no. 145, November-December 2004, 6–8. See also the letters of Peter Bosshard, Policy Director, International Rivers Network, and of Bruce Rich, Senior Attorney and Director, International Program, Environmental Defense, Ibid., 6–10.
59. Mallaby, The World’s Banker, 355–56.
60. David A. Phillips, Reforming the World Bank: Twenty Years of Trial—and Error (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 212, 280.
61. Ibid., 211.
62. Ibid., 265.
63. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2006: Getting Results (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006), xxi, 27; World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, World Bank Assistance to Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007), 35.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/0250B7B211337A4C852574EF0073DAF9/$file/arde06_full.pdf
64. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Articles of Agreement (as amended effective February 16, 1989), Article III, sec. 4. (vii). The IDA, IFC, and MIGA Articles of Agreement all have similar provisions.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABOUTUS/Resources/ibrd-articlesofagreement.pdf
65. Kyriakos Varvaressos, “The Concept of a World Bank,” International Bank Notes 5, no. 7 (IBRD/IDA Archives, Box No. 19), June 25, 1951, 4.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWSLETTERS/Resources/WBAnniversary.pdf
66. See: World Bank Operational Policy Manuel, “OP 8.60—Development Policy Lending,” August 2004.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20471192~pagePK:64141683~piPK:64141620~theSitePK:502184,00.html
 
67. World Bank Operations Policy and Country Services, Development Policy Lending Retrospective, July 7, 2007, 7.
http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/saprin/367720rev0pdf.pdf
68. Atiyah Curmally, Jon Sohn, and Christopher Wright, “Multilateral Development Bank Lending Through Financial Intermediaries: Environmental and Social Challenges,” World Resources Institute Issue Brief, June 2005, 2, 7–8.
http://pdf.wri.org/iffe_mdb_lending.pdf
9. World Bank, “Meeting of President Wolfensohn with Senior Management, March 12, 1996” internal document, 17.
70. Ibid., 17–19.
 
Chapter 7 Notes
1. Bretton Woods Project, “Opposition Swells to Appointment of Wolfowitz to Head World Bank,” March 17, 2005.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-155498
2. Bretton Woods Project, “Wolfowitz Era Begins: Realpolitik 1, Democracy 0,” Bretton Woods Update 45, April 2005, 1.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-174508
3. “A Hawk to Ruffle the World Bank’s Feathers,” The Economist, May 21, 2005
http://www.economist.com/node/3763922; Edward Alden, “Wolfowitz Nomination a Shock for Europe,” Financial Times, March 16, 2005.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/33aa58b6-965b-11d9-8fcc-00000e2511c8.html#axzz1uQSREHcm
4. Frank Hornig and George Macolo, “Can Paul Wolfowitz Transform from Hawk to Dove?” Der Spiegel, June 1, 2005.
http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,358500,00.html
5. Bretton Woods Project, “The World Bank Weeds Out Corruption: Will It Touch the Roots?” Bretton Woods Update 50, 1, March-April 2006.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/2006/04/art-531789/
6. Steve Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending (Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2008), 78–79.
7. See chapter 3.
8. Reuters, “U.S. Senate Panel Probes World Bank,” in Hürriet Daily News (Turkey),“ April 29, 2004; “U.S. Senator Questions World Bank,” Far Eastern Economic Review 167, no. 17 (April 29, 2004): 8.
http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=us-senate-panel-probes-world-bank-2004-04-29
9. Transformation Resource Centre, “Too Many Dams, Too Little Water—Lesotho’s Rivers Could Become ‘Waste Water Drains,’” International Rivers Network, October 31, 2001
http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/too-many-dams-too-little-water-lesotho%E2%80%99s-rivers-could-become-waste-water-drains-1979; Metsi Consultants, “Final Draft of Instream Flow Requirements Study,” Report commissioned by the LHDA, Report No. 648-F-02, Maseru, 1999, 28, quoted in Korinna Horta, “The World Bank’s Decade for Africa: A New Dawn for Development Aid?” Yale Journal of International Affairs (Winter-Spring 2006): 16, endnote 46, 23.
http://yalejournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/061201horta.pdf
10. Korinna Horta, “Corrupt Process,” World Rivers Review 17, no. 2 (April 2002): 2.
11. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearing: Combating Multilateral Development Bank Corruption: U.S. Treasury Role and Internal Efforts, 108th Congress, 2nd sess., July 21, 2004, Senate Hearing 108-734, Statement of Guido Penzhorn, Advocate and Senior Counsel, Durban Bar, Durban, South Africa, “Comments on the Current Lesotho Bribery Prosecutions, Presentation Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on 21 July, 2004,” 38–43.
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/PenzhornTestimony040721.pdf
12. World Bank, “World Bank Sanctions Acres International Limited,” Press Release No. 2005/33/S, July 23, 2004.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20229958~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
13. World Bank, “World Bank Sanctions Lahmeyer International for Corrupt Activities in Bank-Financed Projects,” Press Release No. 129/2007/INT, November 6, 2006.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21116129~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
14. Gary Weiss, “Defending Wolfowitiz,” Forbes, May 3, 2007.
http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/02/gary-weiss-wolfowitz-oped-cx_gw_0503weiss.html
15. Vikas Dhoot, “World Bank Puts on Hold a Billion Dollars for Health,” Indian Express, April 3, 2006.
http://www.indianexpress.com/news/world-bank-puts-on-hold-a-billion-dollars-for-health/1691/
16. World Bank Group Department of Institutional Integrity, Detailed Implementation Review, India Health Sector, 2006–2007, vol. I, 1–2, 13, 16
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDOII/Resources/WB250_Vol1_Web_011508.pdf; Bob Davis, “World Bank Probes Health Fraud Claims,” Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2008.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120552496977537377.html
17. See, for example, Kenneth Timmerman, “World Bank Fired Wolfowitz to Hide Corruption: Former Official,” Newsmax, August 8, 2008.
http://www.newsmax.com/KenTimmerman/world-bank-wolfowitz/2008/08/08/id/337465
18. Quoted in Steven R. Weisman, “Wolfowitz Corruption Drive Rattles World Bank,” New York Times, September 14, 2006.
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/14/business/14wolf.html?ei=5088&en=cb130a950d337b28&ex=1315886400&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print
19. World Bank Group, “Sustainable Infrastructure Plan FY 2009–2011,” July 2008, iv, vii.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSDNETWORK/Resources/SIAPfinal.pdf
20. Manish Bapna, Executive Director, Bank Information Center, “Testimony before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Infrastructure, Poverty, and the Role of the MDBS,” July 12, 2006, 3.
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/BapnaTestimony060712.pdf
21. World Bank Infrastructure Network, “Infrastructure: Lessons from the Last Two Decades of World Bank Engagement,” Discussion Paper, January 30, 2006, 6, 11.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/02/07/000160016_20060207101539/Rendered/PDF/3519910vol.01.pdf
22. Ibid., 6, 11; see: Berkman, The World Bank and the Gods of Lending, 57–74, especially discussion 70–73.
23. World Bank Infrastructure Network, “Infrastructure: Lessons from the Last Two Decades of World Bank Engagement,” 13.
24. Ibid., 14.
25. Ibid., 25–26.
26. Ibid., 27.
27. Ibid., x.
28. World Bank Infrastructure Network, “Scaling up Infrastructure: Building on Strengths, Learning from Mistakes,” January 30, 2006, 6.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources/LessonsLearned20Years-short.pdf
29. Imran Ali, “Political Economy of Water Reforms in Pakistan,” World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy, Background Paper No. 10, in John Briscoe and Usman Kamar, eds., Background Papers: Pakistan’s Water Economy: Running Dry (Washington, DC, and London: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2005), 5, 17.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/02/01/000333037_20100201014523/Rendered/PDF/529140WP0Box341University0Press2006.pdf
30. Pervaiz Amir, “The Role of Large Dams in the Indus Valley, World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy,” Background Paper No. 10, in Briscoe and Kamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy, 25.
31. World Bank, Pakistan Poverty Assessment—Poverty in Pakistan: Vulnerabilities, Social Gaps, and Rural Dynamics, Report No. 24296-PAK (Washington, DC: World Bank, October 28, 2002), 88, 90.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2002/11/22/000094946_02110804044180/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
32. Peter Bosshard and Shannon Lawrence, “Pakistan’s Rot Has World Bank Roots,” Far Eastern Economic Review 169, no. 4 (May 2006): 39–43; World Bank, Pakistan Poverty Assessment, 90.
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:HABWa2ru888J:dgroups.org/file2.axd/560f2d83-c116-4303-b60a-4b8b3a5abb72/FEER%2520story%2520506.pdf+Pakistan's+Rot+has+world+bank+roots&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjDbsXBHwmZAbpXE5mCQYw246nn0Wgjw1fhMl6MebKEcHqTyMbIsZCkScHLmy-mLc3O82D8pNniwDN6boTHk2u5zhzjbl8er23VbFME-oXhssJg3nAoEfa6kl7V3Jf8F31gnjDa&sig=AHIEtbRJa3H-QkaflsZ1Yu1CPNGyRRK3uw
33. Dan Blackmore and Faizal Husan, “Water Rights and Entitlements,” Background Paper No. 6, in Briscoe and Kamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy, 36–37.
34. Muhammad Nawaz Bhutta and Lambert K. Smedema, “Drainage and Salinity Management,” Background Paper No. 15, in Briscoe and Kamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy, 9, 13.
35. Imran Ali, “Political Economy of Water Reforms in Pakistan,” 11.
36. Briscoe and Kamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy, xviii; Peter Bosshard, “The World Bank and Pakistan’s Water Sector,” World Economy and Development in Brief, January 27, 2006.
http://www.wdev.eu/wearchiv/53168697580b82701.php
37. Peter Bosshard and Shannon Lawrence, “The World Bank’s Conflicted Corruption Fight,” International Rivers Network, May 1, 2006.
http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/the-world-bank’s-conflicted-corruption-fight-1985
38. Ibid.; Briscoe and Kamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy, 63–69.
39. Bosshard and Lawrence, “The World Bank’s Conflicted Corruption Fight.”
40. Ray Fulcher, “Pakistan: Kalabagh Dam Threatens Livelihood of Millions,” Green Left Weekly (Australia), March 15, 2006; Pakissan, “World Bank Urged Not to Release Funds for ‘Bhasha’ Dam,” February 6, 2006.
http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/34432
41. Anwar Iqbal, “US and WB Renew Pledge to Finance Bhasha Dam,” Dawn (Pakistan), April 24, 2012; “Now the World Bank,” The Nation (Pakistan), May 12, 2012.
42. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearing: Multilateral Development Banks: Development Effectiveness of Infrastructure Projects, 109th Congress, 2nd sess., July 12, 2006, Senate Hearing 109-912.
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/hearings/multilateral-development-banks-development-effectiveness-of-infrastructure-projects
43. Ibid., Statement of Manish Bapna, Executive Director, Bank Information Center, Before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 42–48.
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/BapnaTestimony060712.pdf
44. Ibid., 6.
45. William Easterly, Professor of Economics, New York University, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Hearing: Multilateral Development Banks: Promoting Effectiveness and Fighting Corruption, 109th Congress, 2nd sess., March 28, 2006, Senate Hearing 109-913, 46–47.
http://ftp.resource.org/gpo.gov/hearings/109s/33727.txt
46. Ibid., 47.
47. Thayer Scudder, Lee M. Talbot, and T. C. Whitmore, “Lao People’s Democratic Republic Nam Theun 2 Hydro Project, Report of the International Environmental and Social Panel of Experts” (Vientiane, Laos PDR: Ministry of Industry and Handicraft, February 7, 1997), 11–12.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAOPRD/Resources/POEreport1.pdf
48. World Bank and MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency), “Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed IDA Grant (Nam Theun 2 Social and Environmental Project) in the Amount of SDR 13.1 Million (US $20 Million Equivalent) to the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and a Proposed IDA Partial Risk Guarantee in the Amount of Up to US $50 Million for a Syndicated Commercial Loan, and Proposed MIGA Guarantees of Up to US $200 Million in Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Thailand, for a Syndicated Commercial Loan to and Equity Investment in the Nam Theun 2 Power Company Limited for the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project,” Report No. 31764-LA, March 31, 2005, 16.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/04/08/000012009_20050408085158/Rendered/PDF/317640corr.pdf
49. Adrian Fozzard, Senior Public Sector Specialist, World Bank, “Technical Brief, Revenue and Expenditure Management, Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project” (Washington, DC: World Bank, March 16, 2005), 11.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/LAOPRDEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20395394~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:293684~isCURL:Y,00.html
50. World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region, Lao PDR Country Economic Memorandum: Realizing the Development Potential of Lao PDR, Report No. 30188-LA, December 2004, 72.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAOPRD/Resources/lao_cem_dec04.pdf
51. David F. Hales, “Nam Theun: A Dam That Laos Doesn’t Need,” New York Times, April 7, 2005.
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/06/opinion/06iht-edhales.html
52. David F. Hales, “Nam Theun  Dam: The World Bank’s Watershed Decision,” World Watch Magazine, May-June 2005, 27–28.
http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EP183D.pdf
53. World Bank, Lao PDR Country Economic Memorandum, 18.
54. Address by Pierre Lelloche, Minister of State with Responsibility for Foreign Trade, at the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Dam Inauguration Ceremony, December 9, 2010.
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YteQFw12XXEJ:www.ambafrance-laos.org/IMG/doc/Address_by_Mr_Pierre_LELLOUCHE_French_Secretary_of_State_for_External_Trade.doc+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgFvf3L2wLM0u-ncsepjUML6ei96YYG7wZsov1K2pcxyj2kyQtFklTPyv1asevfcmYOF1EjKr-3bOGxop0tHL0byoP799O9Sd_VUChkulQUP6gHYc1pPSBvdgjCGUSzK1vYiptF&sig=AHIEtbQfIgjWZNl9OkwTUNhXnAtD5Z-L4A
55. Letter to Robert B. Zoellick, President the World Bank, and to Haruhiko Kuroda, President, the Asian Development Bank, Re: Unresolved issues on the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project and the hydropower strategy of the banks, on behalf of 34 nongovernmental organizations in 18 countries, December 6, 2010.
http://ir.fivepaths-dev.com/files/attached-files/ngo_letternt2_dec2010_final_1.pdf
56. Richard Stone, “Along with Power, Questions Flow at Laos’s New Dam,” Science 38, no. 5977 (April 23, 2010): 414–15.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5977/414.1.summary
57. Bank Information Center, “IFC Investment in Africa Reaches $1 Billion,” in IFIs in Africa News Briefing, No. 22, June 29, 2007.
58. “The Bujagali Hydro,” This Is Africa (affiliated with the Financial Times), October 1, 2009.
http://www.thisisafricaonline.com/Business/The-Bujagali-Hydro?current_page=1
59. “World Bank OKs $360 Mln in Uganda Dam Project Loans,” Reuters, April 26, 2007.
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2007/04/26/worldbank-uganda-dam-idUKN2648398920070426
60. World Bank, Inspection Panel, Investigation Report: Uganda: Private Power Generation (Bujagali) Project (Guarantee No. B0130-UG), August 29, 2008, xvii.
61. Ibid., 126, 127, 130, 131.
62. Ibid., xxxvi-xxxvii.
63. Ibid., xx.
64. World Bank International Finance Corporation News, “Bujagali Hydro Earns Africa Hydro Power Deal of the Year Award,” March 21, 2008.
65. See, e.g.: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2009: Achieving Sustainable Development (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2009), xvi, 53.
66. Allan Meltzer et al., Report of the International Financial Institution Advisory Commission (Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, 2000), 63, 67–69.
67. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Development Results in Middle-Income Countries: An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Support (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007), xiii, xiv.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/B849A54B45DCC529852574EF00690F96/$file/MIC_evaluation.pdf
68. Ibid., 20.
69. Ibid., xv.
70. Ibid.
71. Ibid., xvii, 20, 72.
72. Todd Moss and Sarah Rose, “China Exim Bank and Africa: New Lending, New Challenges,” Center for Global Development Notes, November 2006
http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0708/DOC22802.pdf; Bruce Rich, “Blank Checks for Unsustainable Development,” Environmental Forum 24, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 1–5
http://www.banktrack.org/manage/ems_files/download/blank_checks_for_unsustainable_development/blankchecks_by_bruce_rich.pdf; Fitch Ratings Press Release, “China Plays Crucial Role in Sub-Saharan Africa’s Growth,” December 7, 2001, cited in Daniel Berhane, “China EXIM Bank Tops World Bank as Africa’s Lender,” Danile Berhane’s Blog, January 2, 2012. http://danielberhane.wordpress.com/2012/01/02/china-exim-bank-tops-world-bank-as-africas-lender/
73. “Brazil’s Development Bank: Nest Egg or Serpent’s Egg?” The Economist, August 5, 2010
http://www.economist.com/node/16748990; “Brazil—Transforming the State Development Bank,” Meat Trade News Daily, August 22, 2010.
74. “Big Spender: Brazil’s International Lending Ventures,” Open Society Foundation for South Africa, South African Foreign Policy Initiative, May 13, 2012.
http://www.safpi.org/news/article/2012/big-spender-brazils-international-lending-ventures
75. Concerning BNDES and the environment, see, e.g.: NGO Reporter Brasil, “BNDES and Its Environmental Policy: A Critique from the Perspective of Organized Civil Society,” February 2011
http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/documentos/BNDES_English.pdf; and Amazon Watch, “BNDES: Banking Amazon Destruction.”
http://amazonwatch.org/work/bndes
76. Françoise Crouigneau and Richard Hiault, “Wolfowitz Slams China Banks on Africa Lending,” Financial Times, October 24, 2006
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/45e594e0-62fc-11db-8faa-0000779e2340.html#axzz1una6oPpN; Rowan Callick, “Wolfowitz Holds Beijing to Account Over Africa,” The Australian, October 25, 2006.
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/wolfowitz-holds-beijing-to-account-over-africa/story-e6frg6so-1111112412780
77. Xinhua, “China: Wolfowitz’s Criticisms of China’s African Loans ‘Groundless,’” China News, October 25, 2006.
77. Francis Fukuyama, “A Battle Paul Wolfowitz Can’t Win,” The American Interest, September 16, 2006.
http://blogs.the-american-interest.com/fukuyama/2006/09/16/a-battle-paul-wolfowitz-can’t-win/
78. Catherine Weaver, The Hypocrisy Trap: The World Bank and the Poverty of Reform (Princeton, NJ, and Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press, 2008), 55; Hilary Benn, “Improving Governance, Fighting Corruption,” speech to Transparency International, September 14, 2007, quoted in Weaver, The Hypocrisy Trap, 55.
79. Weaver, The Hypocrisy Trap, 134–35; “Double-Edged Sword: The World Bank’s Anti-Corruption Effort Has Critics on the Inside,” The Economist, September 14, 2006.
http://www.economist.com/node/7914921
80. Richard Behar, “World Bank Anti-Corruption Drive Blunted as China Threatens to Halt Loans,” Fox News, March 27, 2007
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,261290,00.html; Hsieo-Yun to James W. Adams, “Re: Sanctions Reform Roll-out in EAP [East Asia and the Pacific World Bank region]—Your Feedback Needed” (World Bank internal e-mail), March 12, 2007.
http://www.foxnews.com/projects/pdf/WB-China.pdf
81. Behar, “World Bank Anti-Corruption Drive Blunted;” Richard Behar, “Paul Wolfowitz’s World Bank Frustration,” Fox News, March 26, 2007.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,261352,00.html
82. World Bank, “Strengthening World Bank Group Engagement on Governance and Anti-Corruption, Consultation Feedback, Mexico, December 18–19, 2006,” Question 10: Other Key Issues.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGOVANTICORR/Resources/Mexico_web.pdf
83. Behar, “World Bank Anti-Corruption Drive Blunted.”
84. The Economist, “Wolfowitz Agonistes,” May 3, 2007.
http://www.economist.com/node/9122670
85. See: Andrew Balls and Edward Alden, “Questions Raised about Wolfowitz Style,” Financial Times, January 23, 2006.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/bfcaa76a-8b8d-11da-91a1-0000779e2340.html#axzz1tXilOKBj
86. Steve Clemons, “Paul Wolfowitz Busy Neo-Conning the World Bank: Staff Rebellion Brewing,” Huffington Post, January 20, 2006.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steve-clemons/paul-wolfowitz-busy-neoco_b_14159.html
87. See, e.g.: Michael Elliott, “So, What Went Wrong?” Wired New York (blog), September 28, 2003.
http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=4060
88. See, e.g.: Greg Hitt, “In World Bank Role, Wolfowitz Keeps Up Battle to Reshape Iraq,” Wall Street Journal, October 30, 2006, A1.
http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=364x2520749
89. “The Wolfowitz Affair: A Sweetheart Deal Leaves a Sour Taste in Many Mouths,” The Economist, April 7, 2007
http://www.economist.com/node/9013594; Bank Information Center, “All’s Fair in Love and War?” Update, April 10, 2007.
90. Government Accountability Project, “Paul Wolfowitz Scandal,” The Shaha Riza Scandal, whistleblower.org.
http://www.whistleblower.org/program-areas/international-reform/world-bank/paul-wolfowitz-scandal
91. Bretton Woods Project, “Wolfowitz Saga Turns Ugly,” Bretton Woods Project News, May 4, 2007.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-553145
92. Ibid.
93. The Economist, “Wolfowitz Agonistes”; “Exit Wolfowitz: Paul Wolfowitz Agrees to Quit the World Bank,” The Economist, May 18, 2007
http://www.economist.com/node/9199763; Steve R. Weisman, “Wolfowitz Resigns, Ending Long Fight at World Bank,” New York Times, May 18, 2007.
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/18/washington/18wolfowitz.html?pagewanted=all
94. Robert B. Holland II, “The Real World Bank Scandal: Why the Bureaucracy Wants to Oust Paul Wolfowitz,” Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2007.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117703693772776487.html
95. Kenneth R. Timmerman, “World Bank Fired Wolfowitz to Hide Corruption: Former Official,” Newsmax, August 8, 2007.
http://www.newsmax.com/KenTimmerman/world-bank-wolfowitz/2008/08/08/id/337465
96. Kenneth Anderson, “How the Ethics Committee Failed Wolfowitz,” Financial Times, May 6, 2007.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/828b4360-fbfc-11db-93a4-000b5df10621.html#axzz1uu9XanzD
97. Anonymous, Bank Information Center, “Staff Comments Posted on Internal World Bank Webpage Concerning Wolfowitz/Riza Connection” (World Bank intranet posting), April 10, 2007.
98. Steven R. Weisman, “Panel Urges World Bank to Change Antigraft Plan,” New York Times, September 13, 2007
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/washington/13worldbank.html; Bretton Woods Project, “Integrity Review Lacks Objectivity,” Bretton Woods Update 55, March-April 2007, 8.
99. Krishna Guha and Eoin Callan, “Volcker Says World Bank Lax on Graft,” Financial Times, September 13, 2007.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/ea70e9e6-616c-11dc-bf25-0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1uu9XanzD
100. Paul A. Volcker et al., Independent Panel Review of the World Bank Group Department of Institutional Integrity (Washington, DC: September 13, 2007), 8, 13.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Volcker_Report_Sept._12,_for_website_FINAL.pdf
101. “A Fight Over Corruption,” Washington Post, editorial, September 17, 2007.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/16/AR2007091601143.html
 
Chapter 8 Notes
1. Bruce Stokes, “New Stripes at the Bank,” National Journal, April 17, 2010, 30–36
http://www.cgdev.org/content/article/detail/1424072/; Sebastian Mallaby, “The Quiet Revolutionary Who Saved the World Bank,” Financial Times, February 16, 2012.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/dd59766a-57da-11e1-b089-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1wD2EYS21
2. Stokes, “New Stripes at the Bank;” Mallaby, “The Quiet Revolutionary Who Saved the World Bank.”
3. Robert B. Zoellick, Foreword, in World Bank, World Development Report 2010, Development and Climate Change (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), xiii.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/5287678-1226014527953/WDR10-Full-Text.pdf
4. Mallaby, “The Quiet Revolutionary Who Saved the World Bank.”
5. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report 2007/2008, Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World (New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2007), 1.
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf
6. World Bank, World Development Report 2010, 5.
7. Ibid., 37.
8. Ibid., 3.
9. International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook 2008 (Paris: International Energy Agency, 2008), 418.
http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/2008-1994/WEO2008.pdf
10. Ibid., 384.
11. UNDP, Human Development Report 2007/2008, 55.
12. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008, 123–24.
13. Ibid., 75.
14. Ibid., 401; D. Archer, H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier Reimer, “Multiple Timescales for Neutralization of Fossil Fuel CO2,” Geophysical Research Letters 24, no. 4 (1997): 405–8; and D. Archer, “Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in Geologic Time,” Geophysical Research Letters 10 (May 2005): 1–6, cited in Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009), 23–24; and D. Archer, “Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in Geologic Time,” cited in Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 2009, 23–24.
15. James Hansen, “Letter to Michelle and Barack Obama, 29 December 2008,” cited in “A Letter to Obama,” Guardian, January 1, 2009.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jan/01/letter-to-barack-obama
16. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008, 418.
17. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), “Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change: An Update,” FCCC/TP/2008/7, November 26, 2008, 54.
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/tp/07.pdf
18. Ibid., 91.
19. Richard K. Lattanzio, “International Climate-Change Financing: The Climate Investment Funds (CIF),” Congressional Research Service, May 5, 2011, 3
http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/168832.pdf; “A Deal in Durban,” The Economist, December 11, 2011.
http://www.economist.com/blogs/newsbook/2011/12/climate-change-0
20. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase I: An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2009), xviii.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCLICHA/Resources/cc_full_eval.pdf
21. World Bank, Towards a Strategic Framework on Climate Change and Development for the World Bank Group, Concept and Issues Note, Report No. DC 2008-0002 (Washington, DC: World Bank, March 27, 2008), 12.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/21712411/DC2008-0002(E)ClimateChange.pdf
22. World Bank, Development and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group, Report to the Development Committee, October 12, 2008, 5, 8, 12.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/21928837/DC2008-0009%28E%29ClimateChange.pdf
23. The EIR recommended that “The WBG should apply carbon shadow value analysis systematically to its cost-benefit analysis and rate of return calculations in order to internalize the currently externalized costs of all energy projects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, as a follow-up to its carbon backcasting as input for its strategies to encourage investment in low- and no-carbon energy alternatives. Shadow pricing should internalize both local costs, like pollution, and global costs, such as climate change.” See: Extractive Industries Review, Striking a Better Balance, vol. I, The World Bank Group and Extractive Industries, The Final Report of the Extractive Industries Review (Jakarta, Indonesia, and Washington, DC: Extractive Industries Review, December 2003), 64.
24. World Bank, Development and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework, 16, 32.
25. Ibid., 9, footnote 5.
26. Ibid., 9–10, footnote 6.
27. Lisa Friedman, “World Bank: South Africa Wins $3.75 Billion Coal Loan,” Climate Wire, April 9, 2010
http://www.eenews.net/public/climatewire/2010/04/09/1; Ama Marston, “World Bank Energy Lending Causes Uproar,” Bretton Woods Project Update 70, April 15, 2010.
http://www.brettnwoodsproject.org/art-566146
28. World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed IBRD Loan in the Amount of $3,750 Million to Eskom Holdings Limited, Guaranteed by the Republic of South Africa for the ‘Eskom Investment Support Project,’” Report No. 53425-ZA, March 19, 2010, 29–30.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1097257794915/537867-1136835492035/SouthAf-Eskom-PAD.pdf
29. John Vidal, “Rich Countries to Pay Energy Giants to Build New Coal-Fired Plants,” Guardian, July 14, 2010.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jul/14/un-carbon-offset-coal-plants/print
30. Bretton Woods Project, “Clean Energy Targets for the World Bank: Time for a Recount,” Bretton Woods Project, Briefing, May 19, 2010.
31. World Bank, Project Document on a Proposed IBRD Loan of US $180 Million and a Grant from the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund of US $45.4 Million to India for a Coal-Fired Power Rehabilitation Project, February 24, 2009, 6.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/repository/India%20-%20Coal%20Fired%20Generation%20Rehabilitation%20Project.pdf
32. Ibid., 5.
33. Global Environment Facility, “Request for CEO Endorsement/Approval, The GEF Trust Fund, GEFSEC Project ID 100531, India Coal-Fired Generation Rehabilitation Project,” March 20, 2009, 7.
http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/repository/India%20-%20Coal%20Fired%20Generation%20Rehabilitation%20Project.pdf
34. World Bank, Project Document on a Proposed IBRD Loan of US $180 Million,150, 3, footnote 7.
35. Ibid., 5.
36. UNFCCC, “Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change,” 53.
37. International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook 2010 (Paris: International Energy Agency, 2010), 417.
http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/weo2010.pdf
38. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “UNEP in the GEF,” http://www.unep.org/dgef/
39. Global Environment Facility, “Request for CEO Endorsement/Approval, The GEF Trust Fund, GEFSEC Project ID 100531,” 35–36. The Bank’s riposte was that such an attitude was unrealistic, that coal would be a big part of India’s future energy portfolio in any case, and that without the projects the coal plants would be rehabilitated, but at a slower pace and with lesser energy efficiency. (Ibid.)
40. David Wheeler, “Tata Ultra Mega Mistake: The IFC Should Not Get Burned By Coal,” Global Development: Views from the Center (blog of the Center for Global Development), March 12, 2008.
http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/03/tata-ultra-mega-mistake-the-if.php
41. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase II: The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 64.
42. Wheeler, “Tata Ultra Mega Mistake.”
43. Sierra Club Compass, “Sierra Club India: Coal Is Cheap? World’s Largest Coal Plants Bankrupted by Skyrocketing Prices,” August 15, 2011
http://sierraclub.typepad.com/compass/2011/08/sierra-club-india-coal-is-cheap.html; Kartikay Mehrotra, “Tata Power Said to Seek Government Help to Curb Plant Losses as Coal Soars,” Bloomberg India, August 10, 2011.
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-08-09/tata-power-said-to-seek-government-help-to-curb-losses-at-plant.html
44. Natalie Obiko Pearson, “Tata Prefers Clean-Energy Projects Over Coal in Chase for Growth,” Bloomberg, March 7, 2012.
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-08/tata-prefers-clean-energy-projects-over-coal-in-chase-for-growth.html
45. Shakeb Afsah and Kendyl Salcito, The World Bank’s Coal Electricity Headache, CO2 Scorecard, May 24, 2011.
http://co2scorecard.org/home/researchitem/19
“In India,” the authors write, “the 4000 MW Tata Mundra coal plant will generate approximately 28–30 billion KWh of electricity per year. The Indian government has calculated that a person requires 73 KWh per person per year to meet basic energy needs—mostly lighting at night (source: WEO 2007). With envelope-back math, a fourth-grader could tell you that the scale of Tata Mundra power plant’s electricity output is capable of meeting the basic needs of the 400 million Indians currently without power. Yet only 81,000 new households are promised power from this plant—a mere tenth of a percent of generated electricity is allocated for households with no access.”
46. Friends of the Earth et al., World Bank, Climate Change and Energy Financing: Something Old. Something New? Friends of the Earth, April 2011, 35–36
http://www.criticalcollective.org/wp-content/uploads/World_Bank_Climate_Change_Energy_Financing_Report_Web.pdf; Patrick Bond and Alice Thomson, “Eskom’s Price Hikes Plus Climate Change Contributions Blow Citizen Fuses,” The Mercury (South Africa), January 20, 2010. http://www.durbanclimatejustice.org/articles/eskom%E2%80%99s-price-hikes-plus-climate-change-contributions-blow-citizen-fuses.html
47. Bobby Peek, Groundwork, Friends of the Earth, South Africa, “Eskom Loan Blackens the World Bank’s Name,” Bretton Woods Project, April 16, 2010.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-566122
48. Oil Change International, Action Aid, Vasudha (India), Access to Energy for the Poor: The Clean Energy Option (Washington, DC: Oil Change International, June 2011), 3, 26.
http://priceofoil.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Access-to-Energy-for-the-Poor-June-2011.pdf
The study examined and rejected several projects the Bank claimed targeted energy access for the poor, such as two natural-gas energy projects in Nigeria and Bangladesh. In both of these cases there was no increase of access by the poor to the grid, and in the Nigeria case the project document actually stated that access for the poor would have to be addressed by future projects. Ibid., 28, 29.
49. World Bank Group, Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE), Energizing Sustainable Development: Energy Sector Strategy of the World Bank Group, CODE2011-0021 (draft), March 16, 2011, vii, viii.
http://www.eenews.net/assets/2011/03/30/document_cw_01.pdf
50. Ibid., 21, 29–30.
51. Ibid., 19, 31.
52. Ibid., 21.
53. Lisa Friedman, “Developing Countries Denounce World Bank Restrictions on Coal Loans,” New York Times, April 12, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/04/12/12climatewire-developing-countries-denounce-world-bank-res-51099.html; Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank Energy Strategy Stalled,” June 14, 2011.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-568577
54. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010, 394.
55. Ibid., 56, 247, 249, 250, 257.
56. World Bank IEG, An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms, xv, 59.
57. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010, 260; World Bank IEG, An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms, 41–43, 45.
58. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2010, 3, 56.
59. World Bank IEG, An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms, xix.
60. Ibid., 23.
61. Ibid., 24.
62. See: Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), 170–71, and endnotes 43, 44, 45, 343–42.
63. World Bank IEG, An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms, xiv, 94.
64. Ibid., 76.
65. Ibid., 74–75.
66. Ibid., xxvi.
67. Climate Investment Funds, Meeting of the CTF Trust Fund Committee, “Trustee Report of the Financial Status of the Clean Technology Fund,” May 3, 2012, 2.
http://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cif/sites/climateinvestmentfunds.org/files/CTF_Inf_2_Trustee_Report_for_May2012_meeting.pdf
68. See, e.g.: Ama Marston, “US Congress Votes against Funding World Bank Climate Fund,” Bretton Woods Update 65, April 17, 2009
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-564193; Joel Meister, “U.S. Congress Cuts Funds for World Bank’s So-Called Clean Technology Fund,” Global Development: Views from the Center (blog), February 25, 2009.
http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2009/02/us-congress-cuts-funds-for-wor.php
69. Clean Technology Fund, Investment Plan for Concentrated Solar Power in the Middle East and North Africa Region, 2, 8.
70. Bretton Woods Project, “A Faulty Model? What the Green Climate Fund Can Learn from the Climate Investment Funds,” June 2011, 7.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/2011/06/art-568686/
71. Ibid., 14–15; Climate Investment Funds, Clean Technology Fund, “Non-Disclosure Agreement for Private Sector Projects,” August 18, 2010.
http://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cif/sites/climateinvestmentfunds.org/files/Non_disclosure_agreement_CTF.pdf
72. Red Constantino, “Climate Sabotage: Bank Undermines Direct Access to UN Adaptation Fund,” Bretton Woods Project Update No. 72, September-October 2010, 3
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-566642; Richard K. Lattanzio, “International Climate Change Financing: The Climate Investment Funds,” 15.
73. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Trust Fund Support for Development: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Trust Fund Portfolio (Washington, DC: The World Bank Group, 2011), viii.
https://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/Data/reports/tf_eval.pdf
74. Bruce Rich, Environmental Defense Fund, Foreclosing the Future: Coal, Climate, and Public International Finance (Washington, DC: Environmental Defense Fund, 2009), 1.
http://www.edf.org/sites/default/files/9593_coal-plants-report.pdf
75. Tennille Tracy, “U.S Export-Import Bank Clears India Power-Plant Loan,” Dow Jones Newswires, August 25, 2010.
http://www.advfn.com/nasdaq/StockNews.asp?stocknews=BUCY&article=44136919
76. Rediff Business, “Exim Bank Cowed by Lobbying on Reliance Project,” July 14, 2010.
77. Banktrack, “Dodgy Deal: Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project, India,” May 3, 2012.
http://www.banktrack.org/manage/ajax/ems_dodgydeals/createPDF/sasan_ultra_mega_coal_power_project_umpp_
78. Sierra Club, Pacific Environment, Ground Work, “South African Kusile 4800MW Coal-fired Power Project: Background Information and Fact Sheet.”
http://action.sierraclub.org/site/DocServer/Kusile_Power_Project_Factsheet.pdf?docID=5541
79. Moneycontrol, “Sasan Project CERs Valued at Rs 2000cr for 10 Yrs: R-Power,” February 4, 2011
http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/sasan-project-cers-valued-at-rs-2000cr-for-10-yrs-rpower_519488.html, moneycontrol.com; “R-Power Project Gets Nod for Carbon Credits,” Economic Times (India), February 5, 2011.
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-02-05/news/28428055_1_carbon-credits-tonne-of-carbon-dioxide-power-project
80. World Bank, 10 Years of Experience in Carbon Finance: Insights from Working with the Kyoto Mechanism (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 2.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCARBONFINANCE/Resources/Carbon_Fund_12-1-09_web.pdf
 
Chapter 9 Notes
1. The World Bank, Annual Report 2011: Year in Review (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2011), 12.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2378
The 2011 Annual Report states that the Bank is the trustee of 12 carbon funds and facilities, but in 2012 the Bank’s Carbon Finance home webpage listed a total of 14.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/ENVIRONMENT/EXTCARBONFINANCE/0,,menuPK:4125909~pagePK:64168427~piPK:64168435~theSitePK:4125853,00.html
2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1997, Article 12, Section 2, 11–12.
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf
3. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), International Climate Change Programs: Lessons Learned from the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme and the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, GAO-09-151, November 2008, 7
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09151.pdf; U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), Climate Change Issues: Options for Addressing Challenges to Carbon Offset Quality, GAO-11-345, February 2011, 8, 18.
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11345.pdf
4. World Bank, 10 Years of Experience in Carbon Finance: Insights from Working with the Kyoto Mechanism (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 39–42.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCARBONFINANCE/Resources/Carbon_Fund_12-1-09_web.pdf
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid., 50–51.
7. Michael W. Wara and David G. Victor, “A Realistic Policy on International Carbon Offsets,” Stanford University Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Working Paper No. 74, April 2008, 13–15.
http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/22157/WP74_final_final.pdf
8. World Bank Carbon Finance Unit, Brazil: Plantar Sequestration and Biomass Use (Prototype Carbon Fund), wbcarbonfinance.org.
http://wbcarbonfinance.org/Router.cfm?Page=Projport&ProjID=9600
9. Letter of 143 Brazilian NGOs to CDM Executive Board, June 2004, cited in Tamara Gilbertson and Oscar Reyes, Carbon Trading: How It Works and Why It Fails, Critical Currents No. 7 (Uppsala, Sweden: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, 2009), 81.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/23494095/Carbon-Trading-How-it-works-and-why-it-fails
10. Tamara Gilbertson and Oscar Reyes, Carbon Trading, 81.
11. Ibid., 83.
12. “A Gift from Scotland to Brazil: Drought and Despair,” The Scotsman, July 7, 2007; Carbon Trade Watch, “The Carbon Connection,” 2007, movie.
http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/a-gift-from-scotland-to-brazil-drought-and-despair-1-908096
13. The $8–16 billion figure depends on the fluctuating price of CERs and of the similarly fluctuating dollar/euro exchange rate.
14. Blackstone, “Bujagali Energy Successfully Delivering First 50MW of Clean Energy to the Ugandan Electricity Grid,” press release, March 19, 2012
http://www.blackstone.com/news-views/details/bujagali-energy-sucessfully-delivering-first-50mw-of-clean-energy-to-the-ugandan-electricity-grid; Lori Pottinger, “Will Holland Fund Carbon-Credit Dam Scam?” International Rivers, December 22, 2011
http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/229/will-holland-fuel-carbon-credit-dam-scam; Esther Nakkazi, “Bujagali Hydropower Project to Earn Carbon Credit Income,” Uganda SciGirl (blog), February 1, 2012.
http://estanakkazi.blogspot.com/2012/02/bujagali-hydropower-project-to-earn.html
15. World Bank International Finance Corporation, “Allain Duhangan II, Summary of Proposed Investment, Project No. 26500” (contains summary of earlier finance and cost estimates for Allain Duhangan I), December 7, 2007
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/spiwebsite1.nsf/ProjectDisplay/SPI_DP26500; Himanshu Takkar, “The 75 Million Dollar Fraud,” Dams, Rivers & People, May 2008; Hydro World, “India’s 192-MW Allain Duhangan Largest Hydro to Win CDM Approval,” June 25, 2007, hydroworld.com
http://www.hydroworld.com/index/display/article-display.articles.hrhrw.News.Indias_192-MW_Allain_Duhangan_largest_hydro_to_win_CDM_approval.html; World Bank Carbon Finance Unit, “India: Allain Duhangan Hydroelectric Project (Italian Carbon Fund),” UNFCCC Reference No. 0862
http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/DNV-CUK1169040011.34; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), “Project 0862 : Allain Duhangan Hydroelectric Project (ADHP),” May 17, 2007.
http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/DNV-CUK1169040011.34
16. Takkar, “The 75 Million Dollar Fraud;” Nirmalya Choudhury, “Sustainable Dam Development in India: Between Global Norms and Local Practices,” Discussion Paper, Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, ISSN-0441, Bonn, October 2010, 16–19.
http://www.die-gdi.de/CMS-Homepage/openwebcms3_e.nsf/(ynDK_contentByKey)/MSIN-88PC6C/$FILE/DP%2010.2010.pdf
17. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase II: The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 11, 31, 78.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCCPHASEII/Resources/cc2_full_eval.pdf
18. Peter Bosshard, “World Bank Hydro Project Exposes Blatant Abuse of Climate Funds,” Huffington Post, September 20, 2011
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-bosshard/world-bank-hydro-project-_b_971949.html; Nick Meynen, “Belgian Cherry on Indian Pie,” CDM Watch, 2009.
http://carbonmarketwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/belgian-cherry-on-indian-pie_nick-meynen.pdf
19. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development, 77; World Bank, 10 Years of Experience in Carbon Finance, 59.
20. World Bank, 10 Years of Experience in Carbon Finance, 61.
21. World Bank Carbon Finance Unit, China: Changshu 3F Zhonghao HFC-23 Reduction Project, UNFCCC Reference No. 0306; China: Jiangsu Meilan HFC-23 Reduction Project, UNFCCC Reference No. 0011.
22. John Heilprin, “UN Carbon Trading Scheme: $2.7 Billion Market Could Be ‘Biggest Environmental Scandal in History,’” Associated Press, August 23, 2010.
http://www.activistpost.com/2010/08/un-carbon-trading-scheme-27-billion.html
23. Michael W. Wara and David G. Victor, “A Realistic Policy on International Carbon Offsets,” 11–12; Michael Wara, “Is the Global Carbon Market Working?” Nature 445, no. 8 (February 2007): 595–96.
24. See: CDM Watch et al., “CDM Panel Calls for Investigation Over Carbon Market Scandal,” July 2, 2010
http://eia-global.org/news-media/cdm-panel-calls-for-investigation-over-carbon-market-scandal; Environmental Investigation Agency, “Ethically Bankrupt: World Bank Defense of the HFC 23 Scandal,” August 2010.
25. Michael Szabo, “World Bank Defends Controversial HFC Carbon-Cut Plants,” Reuters, August 23, 2010.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/08/23/us-hfc-bank-hfc-idUSTRE67M2CK20100823
26. European Commission, “Emissions Trading: Commission Welcomes Vote to Ban Certain Industrial Gas Credits,” press release, reference IP/11/56, January 21, 2011.
http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-11-56_en.htm
27. Dinakar Sethuraman and Natalie Obiko Pearson, “Carbon Credits Becoming ‘Junk’ Before 2013 Ban Closes Door: Energy Markets,” Bloomberg, December 7, 2011.
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-12-06/carbon-credits-becoming-junk-before-2013-ban-closes-door-energy-markets.html
28. Mark Shapiro, “‘Perverse’ Carbon Payments Send Flood of Money to China,” Yale Environment 360, December 13, 2010.
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/perverse_co2_payments_send_flood_of_money_to_china/2350/
29. Damian Carrington, “EU Plans to Clamp Down on Carbon Trading Scam,” Guardian, October 26, 2010
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/oct/26/eu-ban-carbon-permits; PR Newswire, “World Bank Attempting to Sabotage Reform of CDM HFC-23 Projects,” World Business Media, August 26, 2010
http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/world-bank-attempting-to-sabotage-reform-of-cdm-hfc-23-projects-101569273.html; Ewa Krukowska, “World Bank Trying to ‘Subvert’ UN Fix for Emission Offsets, Lobby Says,” Bloomberg, August 26, 2010.
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-08-26/world-bank-trying-to-subvert-un-fix-for-emission-offsets-lobby-says.html
30. Carrington, “EU Plans to Clamp Down”; PR Newswire
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/oct/26/eu-ban-carbon-permits; “World Bank Attempting to Sabotage Reform of CDM HFC 23 Projects”
http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/world-bank-attempting-to-sabotage-reform-of-cdm-hfc-23-projects-101569273.html; Krukowska, “World Bank Trying to ‘Subvert’ UN Fix for Emission Offsets.”
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-08-26/world-bank-trying-to-subvert-un-fix-for-emission-offsets-lobby-says.html
31. Wara, “Is the Global Carbon Market Working?”
32. Environmental Investigation Agency, “China’s Greenhouse Gas Vent Threat in Bid to Extort Billions,” November 8, 2011
http://www.eia-international.org/china-threat-to-vent-super-greenhouse-gases-in-bid-to-extort-billions; Jonathan Watts, “Green Group Accuses China of Climate Blackmail,” Guardian, November 9, 2011.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/nov/09/green-group-china-climate-blackmail
33. U.S. GAO, Climate Change Issues: Options for Addressing Challenges to Carbon Offset Quality, 14, 15.
34. Tom Young, “UN Suspends Top CDM Project Verifier Over Lax Audit Allegations,” BusinessGreen, December 1, 2008.
http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/1803220/un-suspends-cdm-project-verifier-lax-audit-allegations
35. Michael Szabo, “U.N. Panel Suspends Two More Carbon Emissions Auditors,” Reuters, March 26, 2010.
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2010/03/26/us-carbon-un-suspensions-idUKTRE62P5E420100326
36. Michael Szabo, “Emission Auditors Get Poor Grades for Second Year,” Reuters, June 28, 2010
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/06/28/us-carbon-cdm-idUSTRE65R3AP20100628; Lambert Schneider and Leonard Mohr, “2010 Rating of Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) Accredited under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),” Report for WWF (Berlin: Öko-Institut e.V., July 28, 2010).
http://www.jiko-bmu.de/files/basisinformationen/application/download/oekoinstitut_2010_rating_of_doe.pdf
37. U.S. State Department, Carbon Credits Sufficient but Not Necessary for Sustaining Clean Energy Projects of Major Indian Business Groups, Cable 08MUMBAI340, July 16, 2008
http://wikileaks.org/cable/2008/07/08MUMBAI340.html#; for discussions of the cable, see: Payal Prakekh, “WikiLeaks and the CDM” (blog), September 9, 2011; Quirin Schiermeir, “Clean-Energy Credits Tarnished: Wikileaks Reveals That Most Indian Claims Are Ineligible,” Nature 477 (September 27, 2011)
http://www.climate-consulting.org/2011/09/09/wikileaks-and-the-cdm/#permalink: 517–18; Katy Yan, “WikiLeaks Cable Highlights Highlevel CDM Scam in India,” International Rivers, September 20, 2011.
http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/246/wikileaks-cable-highlights-high-level-cdm-scam-in-india
38. Mark Shapiro, “Conning the Climate: Inside the Carbon-Trading Shell Game,” Harpers Magazine, February 2010, 36, cited in Christopher Barr, “Governance Risks for REDD+: How Weak Forest Carbon Accounting Can Create Opportunities for Corruption and Fraud,” in Transparency International, Global Corruption Report: Climate Change (London and Washington, DC: Earthscan, June 2011), 338.
http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/global_corruption_report_climate_change
39. See, e.g.: Christoph Sutter and Juan Carlos Parreño, “Does the Current Clean Development Mechanism (CM) Deliver Its Sustainable Development Claim? An Analysis of Officially Registered CDM Projects,” Climate Change 84 (July 2007)
http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/system/files/articles-72508_resource_1.pdf: 75–90. The authors find no officially registered CDM projects likely to both deliver GHG emissions and contribute to local sustainable development, but they do, overoptimistically as later studies and examples would show, take at face value claims that most of the CDM projects would reduce GHG emissions.
40. Nathanial Gronewold, “Europe’s Carbon Emissions Trading—Growing Pains or Wholesale Theft?” New York Times, January 31, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/01/31/31climatewire-europes-carbon-emissions-trading-growing-pai-74999.html?pagewanted=all; Joshua Chaffin, “Carbon Trading: Into Thin Air,” Financial Times, February 14, 2011.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/368f8482-387d-11e0-959c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1yvcV8f6C
41. Peter Younger, Interpol, quoted in Sunanda Creah, “Forest CO2 Scheme Will Draw Organized Crime: Interpol,” Reuters, May 29, 2009.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/29/us-indonesia-carbon-crime-sb-idUSTRE54S1DS20090529
42. Transparency International, Global Corruption Report: Climate Change, 297–98; U.S. GAO, Climate Change Issues: Options for Addressing Challenges to Carbon Offset Quality, 9, 11–13, 17.
43. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department (OED), The World Bank Forest Strategy: Striking the Right Balance (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000), 114.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/b57456d58aba40e585256ad400736404/f7d852631e3a2b25852569a800654b8c/$FILE/forestry.pdf
44. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, February 5, 2013), iii, xii, 18, 50, 100
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/evaluations/managing-forest-resources-sustainable-development; John Vidal, “World Bank Spending on Forests Fails to Curb Poverty, Auditors Claim: Report by World Bank’s Own Evaluators Say Its Investments Support Logging and Do Little to Help Rural Poor People,” Guardian, January 29, 2013.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2013/jan/29/world-bank-forests-poverty-auditors
45. Mu Suchoa and Cecilia Wikström, “Land Grabs in Cambodia,” International Herald Tribune, July 12, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/19/opinion/land-grabs-in-cambodia.html; David Pred and Natalie Budalsky, “Cambodia and the Limits of World Bank Accountability,” Bretton Woods Project Update 75, April 5, 2012
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-567913; David Pred and Natalie Budalsky, “Accountability Squandered,” Bretton Woods Project, Update 81, June 22, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-570766
46. Fran Lambrick, “Who Is Responsible for the Death of Cambodia’s Foremost Forest Activist?” Guardian, May 1, 2012
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2012/may/01/death-cambodian-forest-activist-chut-wutty; Kanaha Sabapathy, “Cambodian Environment Journalist Found Murdered,” Australian Broadcasting Company (ABC) News, September 13, 2012.
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-09-12/an-environmentalists-shocked-at-logging-death/4258322
47. Richard Wainwright et al., “From Green Ideals to REDD Money—A Brief History of Schemes to Save Forests for Their Money,” FERN Briefing Note 2, November 2008, 2.
http://www.redd-monitor.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/document_4316_4321.pdf
48. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Cancún Climate Change Conference,” November 2010.
http://unfccc.int/meetings/cancun_nov_2010/meeting/6266.php
49. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Outcome of the Ad-Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention,” Draft Decision—CP.16, paragraph 70, 10.
http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_16/application/pdf/cop16_lca.pdf
50. Chris Lang, “REDD: An Introduction,” REDD-Monitor, February 2011
http://www.redd-monitor.org/redd-an-introduction/; “Cancún Agreement Includes Undefined Forest Initiative,” Sustainable Business, December 14, 2010.
http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/21593
51. Kemen Austin, Florence Daviet, and Fred Stolle, “The REDD+ Decision in Cancún,” World Resources Institute, December 20, 2010.
http://www.wri.org/stories/2010/12/redd-decision-cancun
52. Kate Dooley, “Forest Watch Special Report—UNFCCC Climate Talks, Cancún, December 2010,” EU Forest Watch, December 2011.
http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Cancun%20update.pdf
53. Fiona Harvey, “If Money Grew on Trees,” Financial Times Magazine, December 3, 2010.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/b83e4f5c-fcd9-11df-ae2d-00144feab49a.html#axzz27okvGS00
54. Chris Lang, “Four Reactions to Cancún: Via Campesina, Bolivia, Friends of the Earth International, and Indigenous Environmental Network,” REDD-Monitor, December 12, 2010
http://www.redd-monitor.org/2010/12/12/four-reactions-to-cancun-via-campesina-bolivia-friends-of-the-earth-international-and-indigenous-environmental-network/; Meena Menon, “In Cancún, Protest Breaks Out against REDD,” The Hindu (India), December 9, 2010, front page.
http://www.hindu.com/2010/12/09/stories/2010120966311700.htm
55. Lang, “Four Reactions to Cancún;” Dooley, “Forest Watch Special Report—UNFCCC Climate Talks, Cancún;” Austin et al., “The REDD+ Decision in Cancún.”
56. UN Development Programme, “UN Agencies Laud Agreement on REDD+ Reached in Cancún,” Newsroom, December 11, 2010
http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/2010/december/un-agencies-laud-agreement-on-redd-reached-in-cancun.en; Mongabay, “Climate Agreement Reached in Cancún,” December 10, 2012, mongabay.com.
http://news.mongabay.com/2010/1213-cancun_agreements.html
57. UN Development Programme, “UN Agencies Laud Agreement on REDD+ Reached in Cancún;” UN-REDD Programme, “UN-REDD Programme Partner Countries.”
http://www.un-redd.org/Partner_Countries/tabid/102663/Default.aspx
58. “Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Takes Aim at Deforestation,” World Bank News and Broadcast, December 11, 2011.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21581819~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
59. Heinrich Böll Stiftung (Foundation), North America, “Climate Funds Update, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility,” June 2012
http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/listing/forest-carbon-partnership-facility; World Bank, “Forest Carbon Partnership Facility”
http://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp/; Kate Dooley, Tom Griffiths, Francesco Martone, and Saskia Ozinga, Smoke and Mirrors: A Critical Assessment of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, FERN and Forest People’s Programme, February 2011.
http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2011/03/smokeandmirrorsinternet.pdf
60. World Bank/United Nations Development Programme, “Climate Finance Options, MDB Forest Investment Program”
http://www.climatefinanceoptions.org/cfo/node/49; Climate Investment Funds, “Forest Investment Program”
http://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cif/node/5; Heinrich Böll Stiftung (Foundation), North America, “Climate Funds Update, Forest Investment Program.”
http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/listing/forest-investment-program
61. Climate Investment Funds, “Forest Investment Program.”
62. John Vidal, “BP among Founding Members of World Bank Carbon Fund,” Guardian, May 31, 2011.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/may/31/bp-world-bank-carbon-fund
63. Bretton Woods Project, “Climate Investment Funds Monitor 2, July 2010 Summary,” July 27, 2010.
64. Dooley et al., Smoke and Mirrors, 7–8.
65. See the various iterations of the World Resources Institute’s “Getting Ready with Forest Governance: A Review of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Readiness Preparation Proposals and the UN-REDD National Programme Documents” from 2009–12.
http://www.wri.org/publication/getting-ready
66. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), Forest Governance Group, Just Forest Governance—for REDD, for Sanity, Progress Made by the Forest Governance Learning Group (London: IIED, 2011), 5.
http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G03145.pdf
67. Transparency International, “Corruption Perceptions Index 2011.”
http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2011/results/
68. Interpol and the World Bank, Chainsaw Project: An Interpol Perspective on Law Enforcement in Illegal Logging, October 2010, 44–45.
www.illegal-logging.info/uploads/WorldBankChainsawIllegalLoggingReport.pdf
69. Sunanda Creagh, “Graft Could Jeopardize Indonesia’s Lucrative Climate Deals,” Reuters, September 17, 2010
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/09/17/us-indonesia-corruption-idUSTRE68G0O020100917; Emy Wulandari, “Bribes Went to Forestry Ministry Officials: Trial Witness,” Jakarta Post, October 31, 2008.
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/10/31/bribes-went-forestry-ministry-officials-trial-witness.html
70. Interpol and the World Bank, Chainsaw Project, 46.
71. Ibid., 5–6.
72. “The Mask Slips: The Durban Meeting Shows That Climate Policy and Climate Science Inhabit Parallel Worlds,” Nature 480 (December 15, 2011): 292.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v480/n7377/full/480292a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20111215
73. Fiona Harvey, “Global Carbon Trading System Has ‘Essentially Collapsed,’” Guardian, September 10, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/sep/10/global-carbon-trading-system
74. World Wildlife Fund, “Stimulating Interim REDD+ Demand: The Forest Finance Facility,” 2012 Brief, 2–5.
http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/final_redd__discussion_paper_single_page_bc_edits_06_01_12.pdf WWF proposes the creation of still another “Forest Finance Facility” to keep REDD+ alive.
75. David Barton Bray, “‘Toward Post-REDD+ Landscapes,’ Mexico’s Community Forest Enterprises Provide a Proven Pathway to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation,” Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) info brief no. 30, November 2010, 2, 4
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/infobrief/3272-infobrief.pdf; Gabriela Ramirez Galindo, “REDD+ Can Learn Valuable Lessons from Community-Based Forests in Latin America,” Forest News, a blog by Center for International Forestry Research, December 27, 2011
http://blog.cifor.org/6799/redd-can-learn-valuable-lessons-from-community-managed-forests-in-latin-america#.UlVxBhBYjcs; Peter Cronkleton, David Barton Bray, and Gabriel Median, “Community Forest Management and the Emergence of Multi-Scale Governance Institutions: Lessons for REDD+ Development from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia,” Forests 2, no. 2 (April 13, 2011): 451–73.
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/2/2/451
76. Bray, “Toward Post-REDD+ Landscapes,” 2.
77. Fabiana Frayssinet, “Brazil Perfects Monitoring of Amazon Carbon Emissions,” Interpress Service, August 24, 2012
http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/08/brazil-perfects-monitoring-of-amazon-carbon-emissions/; Adam Vaughan, “Amazon Deforestation Falls Again,” Guardian, August 3, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/aug/03/amazon-deforestation-falls-again
78. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development (project ID PO80829, and PO952050), 44, 107; for a more critical, skeptical analysis of the effectiveness of these loans, see: Vincent McElhinny, “World Bank DPL to Brazil: Moving Money or Mainstreaming Environmental Sustainability?” Bank Information Center, September 9, 2009.
http://www.bicusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/InfoBrief_Sept2009.pdf
79. Inter-Ethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon and Forest Peoples Programme, The Reality of REDD+ in Peru, Between Theory and Practice, November 2011, 6–7
http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2011/11/reality-redd-peru-between-theory-and-practice-website-english-low-res.pdf; see also: Chris Lang, “Interview with Andy White, Rights and Resources Initiative: ‘The Global Market for Forest Carbon Is Not Going to Establish Itself Anytime Soon,’” REDD-Monitor, May 24, 2011.
http://www.redd-monitor.org/2011/05/24/interview-with-andy-white-rights-and-resources-initiative-the-global-market-for-forest-carbon-is-not-going-to-establish-itself-anytime-soon/
80. Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank Corners Climate Funds?” Update 74, February 17, 2011
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-567581; World Bank Carbon Finance, “The Partnership for Market Readiness: Shaping the Next Generation of Carbon Markets,” 4.
http://wbcarbonfinance.org/docs/PMR_Brochure_v2.pdf
81. Reuters Point Carbon, “‘Dead’ CERs to Trade Below 3 Euros Indefinitely: Barclay’s,” September 24, 2012.
http://www.pointcarbon.com/news/1.1998335
82. Joshua Chaffin and Pilita Clark, “Carbon Collapse Raises Fears for Market’s Future,” Financial Times, January 29, 2013, 21.
 
Chapter 10 Notes
1. Robert B. Zoellick, “Why We Still Need the World Bank: Looking Beyond Aid,” Foreign Affairs 19, no. 2 (March-April 2012): 66–78.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137243/robert-b-zoellick/why-we-still-need-the-world-bank
2. Ibid., 72; World Bank, News and Broadcast, “2010 Spring Meetings Endorse $86 Million Capital Increase, Voting Reforms,” April 20, 2010.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22556192~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
3. “Report from the Executive Directors of the International Development Association to the Board of Governors, Additions to IDA Resources: Fifteenth Replenishment, February 8, 2008.” “Management intends to publicly disclose the results of the independent comprehensive assessment of IDA’s controls framework, scheduled for completion in early Calendar Year 2008. In addition, Management aims to implement the findings of this report [the IDA Controls Report], and provide at the IDA15 Mid-Term review, an update on progress made in this regard, including outlining a process for the periodic review of IDA’s controls” (p. 14, paragraph 31).
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/IDA/0,,contentMDK:21234677~menuPK:3492269~pagePK:51236175~piPK:437394~theSitePK:73154,00.html
4. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Review of IDA Internal Controls: An Evaluation of Management’s Assessment and the IAD Review, vol. I, Main Text and Overall Evaluation (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009), xx, 14–15.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTOED/Resources/vol1_final.pdf
5. World Bank IEG, Review of IDA Internal Controls: An Evaluation of Management’s Assessment and the IAD Review, vol. II, Completing Part II and Integrating Parts I and II (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009), 34.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTOED/Resources/vol2_final.pdf
6. Ibid., 34, 42.
7. World Bank IEG, Review of IDA Internal Controls: An Evaluation of Management’s Assessment and the IAD Review, vol. V, Report on the Completion of Part IA, Process Mapping and Effectiveness of Control Design (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009), 18.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTOED/Resources/vol5_final.pdf
8. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2009: Achieving Sustainable Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009), 27. IEG rated only 4 percent of projects as having “high” Monitoring and Evaluation, 33 percent as “substantial,” but 45 percent as “modest” and 18 percent as “negligible.”
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXT2009ARDE/Resources/arde09_web.pdf
9. World Bank, Operations Policy and Country Services, “Concept Note: 2012 Development Policy Lending Retrospective: A Review Focusing on Results, Risks, and Reforms,” February 2012, 6.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1244163232994/6180403-1333560677148/DPL_RetroConceptNoteFeb_forWeb.pdf
10. World Bank IEG, Review of IDA Internal Controls, vol. II, 47.
11. See: World Bank IEG, IDA Internal Controls: Evaluation of Management’s Remediation Program, Report on Management’s Implementation and IAD’s Review of the Five-Point Action Plan (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010).
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/16AA0537A6C4D95A852577D600595C99/$file/IDAControls2.pdf
12. U.S. Government Printing Office, “The International Financial Institutions: A Call for Change, A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate,” March 10, 2010, 111th Congress, 2nd Sess., S. Prt. 111-43, 1.
http://foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/55285.pdf
13. Ibid., 2.
14. Daniel Kaufman, “Siemens and the Illusion of CSR and Codes of Business Integrity,” Kaufman Governance Post (blog), December 16, 2008.
http://thekaufmannpost.net/siemens-and-the-illusion-of-csr-and-corporate-integrity/
15. United Nations Global Compact, “Overview of the UN Global Compact.”
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC/
16. Siri Schubert and T. Christian Miller, “Where Bribery Was Just a Line Item,” New York Times, December 21, 2008.
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/21/business/worldbusiness/21siemens.html?pagewanted=all
17. Ibid.
18. Richard Weiss, “Siemens Shut Out from World Bank Projects after Bribery Scandal,” Bloomberg, July 2, 2009.
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aVGuQnQhHkLQ
19. “Chronology: Twists in Siemens Corruption Scandal,” Reuters, May 9, 2008.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/05/09/us-siemens-chronology-idUSL0937379620080509
20. Cary O’Reilly and Karin Matussek, “Siemens to Pay $1.6 Billion to Settle Bribery Cases (Correct),” Bloomberg, December 16, 2008.
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aCBrlMXEIYxs&refer=europe
21. Weiss, “Siemens Shut Out from World Bank Projects after Bribery Scandal;” World Bank, “Siemens to Pay $100M to Fight Corruption as Part of World Bank Group Settlement,” World Bank Press Release No. 2009/001/EXT, July 2, 2009.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22234573~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
22. World Bank IEG, Review of IDA Internal Controls, vol. I, xx.
23. Richard Behar, “Cyber Security Questions Persist at World Bank,” Fox News, November 2, 2008; Beatrice Edwards, “The Satyam Fraud, Two Years Later,” Government Accountability Project, The Whistleblogger, January 11, 2011.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,445829,00.html
24. Richard Behar, “Exclusive: World Bank’s Web of Ties to ‘India’s Enron,” Fox News, January 12, 2009; Heather Timmons and Bettina Wassenger, “Satyam Chief Admits Huge Fraud,” New York Times, January 8, 2009; Joe Leahy, “Satyam Chief Admits to Falsifying Books,” Financial Times, January 7, 2009.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,479545,00.html
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/08/business/worldbusiness/08satyam.html
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/32ea8364-dc85-11dd-a2a9-000077b07658.html#axzz20Mw00lKn
25. Richard Behar, “Former Top Cyber Official at Center of World Bank Scandal,” Fox News, October 31, 2008.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,445845,00.html
26. Behar, “Cyber Security Questions Persist at World Bank.”
27. Ibid.; Behar, “Exclusive: World Bank’s Web of Ties to ‘India’s Enron.’”
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,479545,00.html
28. Behar, “Cyber Security Questions Persist at World Bank;” Behar, “Exclusive: World Bank’s Web of Ties to ‘India’s Enron;’” Richard Behar, “World Bank Under Cyber Siege in ‘Unprecedented Crisis,’” Fox News, October 10, 2008.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,435681,00.html
29. Behar, “World Bank Under Cyber Siege in ‘Unprecedented Crisis.’”
30. Behar, “Cyber Security Questions Persist at World Bank;” Behar, “Exclusive: World Bank’s Web of Ties to ‘India’s Enron.’”
31. Richard Behar, “World Bank Admits Top Tech Vendor Debarred for 8 Years,” Fox News, December 24, 2008.
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,470964,00.html
32. Bea Edwards, “New Charges and New Arrests in the Satyam Scandal,” Government Accountability Project, The Whistleblogger, November 26, 2009; Edwards, “The Satyam Fraud, Two Years Later.”
http://www.whistleblower.org/program-areas/international-reform/world-bank/satyam-scandal
33. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), World Bank Country-Level Engagement on Governance and Anticorruption: An Evaluation of the 2007 Strategy and Implementation Plan (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 6.
https://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/evaluations/world-bank-country-level-engagement-governance-and-anticorruption
34. Ibid., 38.
35. Business Wire India, “Satyam Receives Golden Peacock Global Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance,” September 23, 2008; IR Global Rankings, irglobalrankings.com.
http://www.financialexpress.com/news/satyam-receives-golden-peacock-global-award-for-excellence-in-corporate-governance/364843/1
http://www.irglobalrankings.com/irgr2010/web/default_eni.asp?idioma=1&conta=46
36. World Bank Social Development Department, Sustainable Development Network, Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility: The Scope for Corporate Investment in Community Driven Development, Report No. 37379-GLB (Washington, DC: World Bank, December 21, 2006), 32.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/244362-1164107274725/3182370-1164201144397/Beyond_CSR_CDD_2006.pdf
37. Kaufman, “Siemens and the Illusion of CSR and Codes of Business Integrity;” Daniel Kaufman, “Satyam vs. Siemens Corruption: The Difference Is in Ponzinomics,” Kaufman Governance Post (blog), January 14, 2009.
http://thekaufmannpost.net/satyam-vs-siemens-corruption-the-difference-is-in-ponzinomics/
38. Behar, “Former Top Cyber Official at Center of World Bank Scandal.”
39. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), World Bank Country-Level Engagement on Governance and Anticorruption, 26, 28.
40. Ibid., xiv, xxxix.
41. Ibid., 28.
42. Ibid., xx, 51–52.
43. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Trust Fund Support for Development: An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Trust Fund Portfolio, Overview (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 8, 10, 12; see also: World Bank Group, Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships Vice-Presidency, 2011 Trust Fund Annual Report (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 5. The $67.8 billion cumulative Trust Fund contribution figure combines $57.5 billion cited by the IEG for 2002–10, with $10.3 billion for FY 2011 cited in the 2011 Trust Fund Annual Report, 5.
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/Data/reports/tf_eval.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CFPEXT/Resources/299947-1274110249410/7075182-1326389980943/WBGTrustFundAnnualReport2011_FINAL.pdf
44. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Trust Fund Support for Development: An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Trust Fund Portfolio (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 12.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/E60411D64A3ECD9A852578C700534B4C/$file/tf_eval.pdf
45. Ibid., 69, 75, xvii.
46. Ibid., 61.
47. World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, Accountability at the World Bank: The Inspection Panel at 15 Years (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009), 153.
48. World Bank, Projects and Operations, “Albania Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-Up Project” (webpage), Overview, Financials.
http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P086807/integrated-coastal-zone-management-clean-up-project-apl-1?lang=en
49. World Bank, “Albania Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-Up Project,” Financials.
50. The Economist, “Guilty As Charged: A Flawed Project in Albania Has Highlighted Some Broader Concerns,” February 28, 2009.
http://www.economist.com/node/13185165
51. Besar Likmeta and Gjergi Erebana, “Exclusive—World Bank Demolished Balkan Village,” Balkan Insight, February 2, 2009; Richard Behar, “World Bank Spent More Than a Year Covering Up Destruction of Albanian Village,” Fox News, February 9, 2009.
http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/exclusive-world-bank-demolished-albania-village
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,490028,00.html
52. Likmeta and Erebana, “Exclusive—World Bank Demolished Balkan Village.”
53. Werner Kiene, Chairperson, World Bank Independent Inspection Panel, “Memorandum to the Executive Directors and Alternates of the International Development Association, Inspection Panel Investigation Report, Albania: Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-Up Project (IDA Credit No. 4083—ALB),” November 24, 2008, 3–4, 63, 64–70.
http://www.foxnews.com/projects/pdf/020909_inspectionpanel.pdf
54. Ibid., 55–56.
55. Kiene, “Memorandum to the Executive Directors and Alternates of the International Development Association,” 5.
56. World Bank, “World Bank Board of Executive Directors Reviews Independent Inspection Panel Report on Coastal Zone Management Project in Albania,” press release, February 17, 2009.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/albania
57. Besar Likmeta, “Albanian Villagers’ Hopes of Damages Recedes,” Balkan Insight, July 11, 2011; World Bank, “Progress Report No. 4 on the Implementation of Management’s Action Plan in Response to the Inspection Panel Investigation Report on the Albania Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-Up Project (IDA Credit No. 4083-ALB),” Report No. 65908-AL, January 13, 2012.
http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/albania-villagers-loose-legal-battles-over-demolished-homes
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/01/25/000350881_20120125084048/Rendered/PDF/659080IPR0P0860IC0dsclosed010240120.pdf
58. The Economist, “Guilty As Charged.”
59. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Safeguards and Sustainability in a Changing World, An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience (Washington DC: World Bank, 2010), 31–32.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSAFANDSUS/Resources/Safeguards_eval.pdf
60. World Bank, Environment Department, Resettlement and Development: The Bankwide Review of Projects Involving Involuntary Resettlement, 1986–1993, Environment Department Paper no. 032 (Washington, DC: World Bank, March 1996), 7, 88.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/03/01/000009265_3980728143956/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
61. Dana Clark (author), André Carothers (editor), “Resettlement: The World Bank’s Assault on the Poor,” Center For International Environmental Law, May 2000, 6, endnote 2.
http://www.ciel.org/Publications/ResettlementBrief2.pdf
62. Personal communication, Michael Cernea, former chief World Bank sociologist, January 2012.
63. World Bank IEG, Safeguards and Sustainability in a Changing World, 20.
64. Personal communication, Michael Cernia.
65. World Bank IEG, Safeguards and Sustainability in a Changing World, 20.
66. Ibid., 79.
67. Ibid., 78.
68. Bank Information Center, “World Bank Modernization Agenda Advances, Sets Stage for Safeguard Review,” June 18, 2012; Bank Information Center, “World Bank Safeguards Review,” background; Kirk Herbertson, “World Bank vs. World Bank: Protecting Safeguards in a ‘Modern’ International Institution,” World Resources Institute, May 16, 2011; World Bank, Operations Policy and Country Services, “Investment Lending Reform: Concept Note,” January 26, 2009, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12.
http://www.bicusa.org/world-bank-modernization-agenda-advances-sets-stage-for-safeguard-review/
http://www.bicusa.org/issues/safeguards/
http://insights.wri.org/news/2011/04/world-bank-vs-world-bank-protecting-safeguards-modern-international-institution
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1240849279648/SecM2009-0026.pdf
69. Vince McElhinny, “World Bank Safeguards Policy Review: Early Issues, What to Expect?” Biceca Boletin Mensual, no. 26, August 2011, 3.
http://www.bicusa.org/world-bank-safeguard-policy-review-early-issues-what-to-expect/
70. World Bank, “Investment Lending Reform: Concept Note,” 4, 6; World Bank, Operations Policy and Country Services, “Moving Ahead on Investment Lending Reform: Risk Framework and Implementation Support,” September 3, 2009, 16.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/09/09/000333037_20090909235811/Rendered/PDF/502850BR0Box3410only10SecM200910442.pdf
71. World Bank, “Investment Lending Reform: Concept Note,” 12.
72. Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank Safeguards and Independent Scrutiny at Risk?” Bretton Woods Project Update 75, April 5, 2011; World Bank, Operational Manual, O.P. 9.00—Program for Results Financing, February 2012; Nancy Alexander, “The World Bank’s Proposed Program for Results (P4R): Implications for Environmental, Social, and Gender Safeguards and Corrupt Practices,” Heinrich Böll Foundation, April 6, 2011; Bretton Woods Project, “Programmed for Results? Concerns Raised Over New World Bank Lending Instrument,” Bretton Woods Project Update 77, September 14, 2011; Vince McElhinny, “P4R Update: World Bank Approves Program for Results Policy—5% Cap over Two Year Pilot Project, but Questions Remain How P4R Expansion Will Be Conditional upon Results of Management and IEG Evaluations,” February 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-567954
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:23101116~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184,00.html
http://www.boell.org/downloads/Alexander_4-6-11_P4R_Critique-FINAL.pdf
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-568909
http://www.bicusa.org/p4r-update-world-bank-approves-program-for-results-policy/
73. World Bank/International Monetary Fund Development Committee, “New World, New World Bank Group: (II) The Internal Reform Agenda,” DC2010-0004, April 20, 2010, 7.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/22553917/DC2010-0004(4)InternalReform.pdf
74. World Bank IEG, Review of IDA Internal Controls: An Evaluation of Management’s Assessment and the IAD Review, vol. I, 15.
75. John Vidal, “NGOS Criticize World Bank’s New Lending Plan for Poorer Countries,” Guardian, October 21, 2011.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/oct/21/ngos-criticise-world-bank-lending
76. Letter of over 200 civil-society representatives to the World Bank Executive Board, “Re: Draft Operational Policy 9.00 Program for Results Financing,” October 26, 2011; Lisa Friedman, E & E, “Finance: New World Bank Funding Approach Riles Green Groups,” February 2, 2012.
77. Bretton Woods Project, “Green Light for Revised P4R, but Concerns Remain,” Bretton Woods Update 79, February 7, 2012; McElhinny, “P4R Update: World Bank Approves Program for Results Policy,” 1–2.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-569566
78. McElhinny, “P4R Update: World Bank Approves Program for Results Policy,” 5.
79. Nancy Alexander, “The World Bank Reboots: Sweeping Investment Lending Reforms in the Works,” Heinrich Böll Foundation, May 10, 2010 (updated), 1, 5–6.
http://www.boell.org/downloads/Alexander_The_World_Bank_Reboots_5-27-2010.pdf
80. Personal communication, IFC staff member, January 2012.
81. International Finance Corporation, 2006 Annual Report (Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation, 2006), 4; International Finance Corporation, 2011 Annual Report (Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation, 2011), 9.
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/18b1a00046d8414da854ac5198539f7e/AR2006_Volume1.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/e800ef80484524eeb9d0fb9a28555046/AR2011_English.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
82. Peter Bakvis and Molly McCoy, “Core Labor Standards and International Organizations: What Inroads Has Labor Made?” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Briefing Papers, no. 6/2008, 5–6.
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/05431.pdf
83. International Finance Corporation, “IFC Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability, Effective January 1, 2012,” 27, 28, 49–51.
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/115482804a0255db96fbffd1a5d13d27/PS_English_2012_Full-Document.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
84. “IFC Performance Standards,” 24; International Finance Corporation, International Finance Corporation, “Policy on Environmental and Social Sustainability,” January 1, 2012, paragraphs 50–52, 11–12.
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/115482804a0255db96fbffd1a5d13d27/PS_English_2012_Full-Document.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
85. International Finance Corporation, “Renewable Energy: IFC’s Approach,” September 2011, 13, 18; Viraj Desai, “World Bank’s IFC Lends $300 Million for Green Energy,” Economic Times [India], January 18, 2011; International Finance Corporation, “IFC and Minda NexGenTech to Provide Off-Grid Lighting to One Million People in Rural India,” press release, June 28, 2012.
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/013446804a95d9f3b12cf39e0dc67fc6/IFC+Renewable+Energy+Presentation+-+September+2011.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-01-18/news/28432473_1_solar-projects-renewable-energy-solar-power
http://ifcext.ifc.org/IFCExt/pressroom/IFCPressRoom.nsf/0/86C721B49B2FCCC485257A2B003D1185
86. Bretton Woods Project, “IFC Updated Performance Standards Weak on Human Rights, Other Shortcomings,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 77, September 2011.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-568878
87. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), IEG Annual Report 2011, Results and Performance of the World Bank Group (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2011), xxiv; World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), IEG Annual Report 2010, Results and Performance of the World Bank Group (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2010), 12.
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/Data/reports/rap2011_vol1.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTRAP2010/Resources/RAP_2010.pdf
88. International Finance Corporation, “Renewable Energy: IFC’s Approach,” 18.
89. See, e.g.: Bretton Woods Project, “IFC’s Mining Investments: A Black Hole for Human Rights?” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 70, April 16, 2010; Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank Increases Extractives Lending Despite Human Rights Abuses,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 75, April 5, 2011; Bretton Woods Project, “The World Bank and Extractives, a Rich Seam of Controversy,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 79, February 7, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-566099
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-569560
90. César Gamboa, “Camisea and the World Bank: A Lost Opportunity to Make Things Better,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 60, April 1, 2008; Oxfam, “World Bank Announces Fund Approval for Peru Pipeline Project,” press release, February 6, 2008; Andrew Miller, Amazon Watch et al., “Open Letter to International Finance Corporation Regarding Financing for Camisea II,” January 29, 2008.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-561075
http://www.oxfamamerica.org/press/pressreleases/world-bank-announces-funding-approval-for-peru-pipeline-project
http://amazonwatch.org/news/2008/0129-open-letter-to-international-finance-corporation-regarding-financing-for-camisea-ii
91. Christiane Badgley, “West Africa Oil Boom Overlooks Tattered Environmental Safety Net,” iWatch News, Center for Public Integrity, January 19, 2012; Bank Information Center, “IFC Approves Offshore Oil Projects in Ghana Despite Serious Outstanding Concerns,” February 20, 2009; Pacific Environment, “Review of Environmental Material for Phase 1 of the Jubilee Oil Project Offshore Ghana,” February 10, 2010; Letter of Ian Gary, Senior Policy Advisor, Oxfam America, et al., to the Board of Directors, World Bank Group, February 12, 2009.
http://www.iwatchnews.org/2012/01/19/7896/west-africa-oil-boom-overlooks-tattered-environmental-safety-net
http://www.bicusa.org/proxy/Document.100874.pdf
92. World Bank Group, “The World Bank Group in Extractive Industries, 2010 Annual Review,”13.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTOGMC/Resources/336929-1233337886428/WBG_Extractive_Industries_Annual_Review_2010.pdf
93. Bretton Woods Project, “The World Bank and Extractives: A Rich Seam of Controversy.”
94. Matthew O. Berger, “World Bank, NGOs Spar Over Indonesian Mine Project,” Inter Press Service News Agency, July 14, 2010; Earthworks, “World Bank Approves Destructive Mining Project in Indonesia,” July 14, 2010, yubanet.com; Scott G. Cardiff, “Supplemental Biodiversity Review of Weda Bay Nickel Project,” Earthworks, July 2010, 5.
http://www.globalissues.org/news/2010/07/14/6301
http://yubanet.com/world/World-Bank-approves-destructive-mining-project-in-Indonesia.php#.UBBYL44Qg20
http://www.earthworksaction.org/files/publications/EW_review_WedaBayNickel_biodiversity.pdf
95. Berger, “World Bank, NGOs Spar Over Indonesian Mine Project.”
96. World Bank Multilateral Investment Insurance Agency, “MIGA: Advancing Sustainable Investments,” MIGA Brief: Environmental and Social Risks, May 2012.
http://www.miga.org/documents/Advancing_Sustainable_Investments.pdf
97. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase II: The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 58–60; Bretton Woods Project, “IFC: Cowboys in the Amazon,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 55, April 2, 2007; Bank Information Center, “World Bank Evaluation Criticizes IFC Oversight of Soy Project in Brazil,” June 6, 2005.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCCPHASEII/Resources/cc2_full_eval.pdf
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-552157
98. “IFC Funding Linked to Soybean Purchase from Farms Using Slave Labor,” May 30, 2005, amazonia.org.br.
99. Luciana Nunes Leal, “Ibama abre sindicânca sobre multo do Bertin,” Estado do São Paulo, June 2, 2009; Greenpeace, Slaughtering the Amazon (Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, June 2009), 5, 71–87.
http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/impresso,ibama-abre-sindicancia-sobre-multa-do-bertin,380731,0.htm
http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/Global/usa/report/2010/2/slaughtering-the-amazon.pdf
http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/Global/usa/binaries/2009/6/slaughtering-the-amazon-part-3.pdf
100. Frank McDonald, “IFC Withdraws Loan from Brazilian Cattle Corporation, Bertin,” Irish Times, June 16, 2009.
http://www.commondreams.org/headline/2009/06/15-4
101. World Bank IEG, Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase II: The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development, 58–60.
102. Ibid.
103. Ibid.
104. Ibid.
105. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Assessing IFC’s Poverty Focus and Results (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2011), 39, 42, 43.
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/evaluations/assessing-international-finance-corporations-ifc-poverty-focus-and-results
106. IFC, 2011 Annual Report, 120.
107. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Assessing IFC’s Poverty Focus and Results, 41, xi.
108. Ibid., xix.
109. Action Aid, Bretton Woods Project, Christian Aid, Eurodad, Campagna per la Riforma della Banca Mondiale, Third World Network, “Bottom Lines, Better Lives? Rethinking Multilateral Financing to the Private Sector in Developing Countries,” March 2010, 2, 10–11.
http://www.eurodad.org/uploadedfiles/whats_new/reports/bottom%20lines%20better%20lives%20web%20version(1)(1).pdf
110. Ibid.
111. Oxfam (France), Eurodad, et al., Is the International Finance Corporation Supporting Tax-Evading Companies? February 2010, 5.
http://www.eurodad.org/uploadedfiles/whats_new/news/is%20the%20international%20finance%20corporation%20supporting%20tax-evasion.pdf
112. DanWatch and IBIS (Uddanneise skaber udvikling), Escaping Poverty—Or Taxes? (Copenhagen: DanWatch, October 2011), 5.
http://www.danwatch.dk/sites/default/files/documentation_files/danwatchifcnov2011.pdf
113. World Bank Group Policy Statement on Offshore Tax Havens, 2010, cited in Nura Molina, Director, Eurodad, et al., in Letter to Mr. Lars Thunell, Executive Vice President and CEO, International Finance Corporation, October 1, 2010.
http://www.eurodad.org/uploadedfiles/whats_new/news/cso%20letter%20on%20wbg%20policy%20oct10.pdf
114. DanWatch and IBIS, Escaping Poverty—Or Taxes? 4–5.
115. World Bank Group, “Policy on the Use of Offshore Financial Centers in World Bank Group Private Sector Operations, Application to IFC Operations,” November 10, 2012.
116. Oxfam (France), Eurodad, et al., Is the International Finance Corporation Supporting Tax-Evading Companies? 11; María José Romero, “Unsafe Haven? New IFC Tax Haven Policy Questioned,” Bretton Woods Project Update no. 79, February 7, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-569573
117. Nick Mead, “Developing World’s Secret Offshore Wealth ‘Double External Debt,’” Guardian, July 22, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/datablog/2012/jul/19/developing-world-offshore-wealth-external-debt
118. Oxfam (France), Eurodad, et al., Is the International Finance Corporation Supporting Tax-Evading Companies? 3.
119. World Bank Group IEG, IEG Annual Report 2011, 50–51.
120. World Bank Group IEG, IEG Annual Report 2011, 75–76.
 
Chapter 11 Notes
1. Annie Lowrey, “Obama Candidate Sketches Vision for World Bank,” New York Times, Global Business, April 9, 2012; on Larry Summers at the World Bank, see: Bruce Rich, Mortgaging the Earth: The World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994), 247–49, 263–64.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/10/business/global/jim-yong-kim-sketches-vision-for-world-bank.html?pagewanted=all
2. “Hats Off to Ngozi,” The Economist, March 31, 2012; “The World Bank: Kim for President,” blog “Feast and Famine,” The Economist, April 16, 2012; “Obama Names Surprise World Bank Candidate Jim Yong Kim,” BBC News, March 23, 2012.
http://www.economist.com/node/21551490
http://www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/04/world-bank
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17481973
3. Lowrey, “Obama Candidate Sketches Vision For World Bank;” The Economist, “The World Bank: Kim for President”; Robin Harding, “U.S. World Bank Nominee Under Fire Over Book,” Financial Times, March 25, 2012.
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f8aa5390-7755-11e1-93cb-00144feab49a.html#axzz29y4Okadk
4. Joyce V. Millen, Alec Irwin, and Jim Yong Kim, “Introduction: What Is Growing? Who Is Dying?” in Jim Yong Kim, Joyce V. Millen, Alec Irwin, and John Gershman, eds., Dying for Growth: Global Inequality and the Health of the Poor (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), 7.
5. Jim Yong Kim et al., “Sickness Amidst Recovery: Public Debt and Private Suffering in Peru, in Kim et al., Dying for Growth, 136–37.
6. Ibid., 151.
7. “Hats Off to Ngozi,” The Economist.
8. Lowrey, “Obama Candidate Sketches Vision For World Bank.”
9. Fred Pearce, “Beyond Rio’s Disappointment, Finding a Path to the Future,” Yale 360, June 28, 2012.
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/beyond_rios_disappointment_finding_a_path_to_the_future/2547/
10. Ibid.; Juliet Eiperin, “G20 Leaders Agree to Phase Out Fossil Fuel Subsidies,” Washington Post, September 25, 2009; Steve Kretzman, “Report: Phasing Out Fossil Fuel Subsidies in the G20: A Progress Update,” Oil Change International, June 2012.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/09/25/AR2009092502453.html
http://priceofoil.org/2012/06/17/report-phasing-out-fossil-fuel-subsidies-in-the-g20-a-progress-update/.
11. Pearce, “Beyond Rio’s Disappointment.”
12. Bradley Brooks, “Rio+20, the Unhappy Environmental Summit,” Associated Press, June 23, 2012.
http://news.yahoo.com/rio-20-unhappy-environmental-summit-071329905.html
13. United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 66/288, “The Future We Want,” July 27, 2012, paragraph 16.
http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/66/288&Lang=E
14. Jonathan Watts, “Rio+20 Summit: Walkout at ‘Green Economy’ Talks,” Guardian, June 15, 2012.
http://guardian.environment.floost.com/Miscellaneous/post-rio20-earth-summit-walkout-at-green-economy-talks-459109
15. Gwyne Dyer,”Rio+20 Culprits Set Stage for Climate Ecocide,” June 24, 2012, straight.com.
http://www.straight.com/article-717686/vancouver/gwynne-dyer-rio20-culprits-set-stage-climate-ecocide
16. Maria van der Hoeven, “We Can Have Safe, Sustainable Energy,” Guardian, April 24, 2012; Fiona Harvey, “Governments Failing to Avert Catastrophic Climate Change, IEA Warns,” Guardian, April 25, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/apr/24/we-can-have-safe-sustainable-energy
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/apr/25/governments-catastrophic-climate-change-iea?newsfeed=true
17. Jim Leape, WWF Director General, “Rio+20 Negotiating Text Is a Colossal Failure of Leadership and Vision,” press release, June 19, 2012; CARE International, “Rio+20: Nothing More than a Political Charade,” press release, June 21, 2012; Barbara Stocking, Chief Executive Oxfam GB, “Oxfam Final Statement on Rio+20: Rio Will Go Down as the Hoax Summit,” June 25, 2012.
http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?uNewsID=205290
http://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/climate-change/rio-20-nothing-more-than-a-political-charade.aspx
http://www.oxfam.org/en/grow/pressroom/reactions/oxfam-final-statement-rio20-rio-will-go-down-hoax-summit
18. United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, “About Voluntary Commitments for Sustainable Development”; Anne Petermann, “Rio Earth Summit: Tragedy, Farce, and Distraction,” Z Magazine, September 2012.
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1213
http://www.zcommunications.org/rio-earth-summit-by-anne-petermann
19. Mark J. Miller, “Rio+20: PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, and Other Brands Support U.N. Sustainability Goals,” June 22, 2012, brandchannel.com.
http://www.brandchannel.com/home/post/2012/06/22/Rio20-Earth-Summit-Corporate-Pledge-062212.aspx
20. Colin Sullivan, “Side Agreements Pitched as the Real Meat Behind Earth Summit,” Energy and Environment News, June 22, 2010; World Bank, “Natural Capital Accounting—List of Supporters,” August 8, 2012.
http://www.eenews.net/public/eenewspm/2012/06/22/1
http://www.wavespartnership.org/waves/sites/waves/files/images/NCA_list_of_supporters.pdf
21. Michael Northrup, “To Understand Rio+20, Put on Your 3D Glasses,” Huffington Post, June 27, 2012; United Nations Sustainable Energy for All, Objectives, sustainableenergyforall.org/objectives.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-northrop/understand-rio20-3d-glasses_b_1625980.html
22. United Nations Sustainable Energy for All, High Level Group, sustainableenergyforall.org/about-us.
23. Lisa Friedman, “Finance: Support for Mass Transit and ‘Green’ Accounting Moves Ahead,” Climate Wire, June 21, 2012; Jonathan Watts, “Development Banks Pledge $175bn for Public Transport at Rio+20,” Guardian, June 20, 2012.
http://www.eenews.net/public/climatewire/2012/06/21/2
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/jun/20/development-banks-rio20-public-transport
24. World Bank, “Development Banks Vital to Ensuring Inclusive Green Growth Becomes Reality,” press release, June 19, 2012.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/06/19/Development-banks-vital-ensuring-inclusive-green-growth-becomes-reality
25. World Bank, “Massive Show of Support for Action on Natural Capital Accounting at Rio Summit,” press release, June 20, 2012.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/06/20/massive-show-support-action-natural-capital-accounting-rio-summit
26. World Bank, Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services, “Building Support for Natural Capital Accounting—What Can Governments and Civil Society Do?” “Frequently Asked Questions,”
http://www.wavespartnership.org/waves/building-support-natural-capital-accounting-–-what-can-governments-and-civil-society-do
27. Rachel Kyte, “How a Week in Rio Leads to an Active Monday Morning,” June 22, 2012, blogs.worldbank.org.
http://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/how-a-week-in-rio-leads-to-active-monday-morning
28. See, e.g.: Salah El Serafy, “Sustainability, Income Measurement, and Growth,” and Jan Tinbergen and Roefie Hueting, “GNP and Market Prices: Wrong Signals for Sustainable Economic Success that Mask Environmental Destruction,” in Robert Goodland, Herman Daly, and Salah El Serafy, eds., Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development: Building on Brundtland, World Bank Sector Policy and Research Staff, environment working paper no. 46 (Washington, DC: World Bank, July 1991), 54, 37–38; the essays in Building on Brundtland were subsequently published as a book, Population, Technology, and Lifestyle: The Transition to Sustainability, ed. Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, and Salah El Serafy (Washington, DC, and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1992).
29. See, e.g., the work in the early 1990s of economist Robert Repetto at the World Resources Institute: Robert Repetto, “Balance Sheet Erosion,” International Environmental Affairs 1, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 131–35; Robert Repetto, “Earth in the Balance Sheet: Incorporating Natural Resources in National Income Accounts,” Environment 34, no. 7 (September 1992): 12–20, 43–45.
30. World Bank, Inclusive Green Growth: The Pathway to Sustainable Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012), 12–13.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSDNET/Resources/Inclusive_Green_Growth_May_2012.pdf
31. See, e.g.: Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Alastair Smith, The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior Is Almost Always Good Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2011).
32. Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank’s ‘Green Growth’ Approach Denounced,” Update 81, July 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-570790
33. Liane Schalatek and Nancy Alexander, “World Bank’s ‘Inclusive Green Growth’ (IGG) Report—A Brief Assessment,” Heinrich Böll Foundation North America, May 16, 2012, 1.
http://www.boell.org/downloads/Schalatek_Alexander_IGG_Assessment.pdf
34. Banktrack, “Banktrack on the Natural Capital Declaration,” Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 16, 2012, 1. For a sympathetic though different perspective, see: Richard Conniff, “What’s Wrong with Putting a Price on Nature,” Yale Environment 360, October 12, 2012.
http://www.banktrack.org/manage/ems_files/download/banktrack_position_on_the_natural_capital_declaration/120616_bt_position_on_ncd.pdf
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/ecosystem_services_whats_wrong_with_putting_a_price_on_nature/2583/.
35. Petermann, “Rio Earth Summit: Tragedy, Farce, and Distraction.”
36. World Bank, “World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim at Brookings Institution,” Speeches and Transcripts, July 19, 2012.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/07/18/world-bank-group-president-jim-yong-kim-brookings-institution
37. Ibid.
38. “Former Clean Energy Czar Tries to Stop Europe’s Dirtiest New Power Plant,” Environment and Energy News, March 14, 2012.
39. Lisa Friedman, “U.S. on Both Sides of New Battle Over Assistance to ‘Ugly’ Coal-Fired Power Plant,” New York Times, July 11, 2011.
http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/07/11/11climatewire-us-on-both-sides-of-new-battle-over-assistan-96428.html?pagewanted=all
40. Ibid.
41. Liza Friedman, “World Bank Studies Coal-Fired Power Plant for Kosovo,” Environment and Energy News, January 17, 2012.
http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/news/world-bank-studies-coal-fired-power-plant-for-kosovo
42. Letter from Daniel M. Kammen to Ms. Marisa Lago, Assistant Secretary, International Markets and Development, U.S. Department of the Treasury, March 12, 1012, www.eenews.net.
43. World Bank, “International Leader on Clean Energy Joins World Bank,” press release no. 2011/084/SDN, September 9, 2010.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22696712~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
44. Letter from Daniel M. Kammen to Ms. Marisa Lago; Daniel M. Kammen, Maryam Mozafarir, and Daniel Prull, Sustainable Energy Options for Kosovo: An Analysis of Resource Availability and Cost, Energy and Resources Group, Goldman School of Public Policy, Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory, University of California–Berkeley, January 15, 2012, 6; Friedman, “Former Clean Energy Czar Tries to Stop Europe’s Dirtiest New Power Plant.”
http://rael.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/Kosovo%20Energy%20Scenarios-19-Jan-2012_0.pdf
45. Letter from Daniel M. Kammen to Ms. Marisa Lago.
46. World Bank, “World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim at Brookings Institution.”
47. Ibid.
48. David Smith, “Desmond Tutu Expresses Outrage at Failing Politicians in South Africa,” Guardian, September 4, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/04/desmond-tutu-expresses-outrage-failing-politicians
49. World Bank Group International Finance Corporation, Oil, Gas and Mining, “Lonmin Plc South Africa—Investing in Success and Sustainable Development”; World Bank Group International Finance Corporation, Oil, Gas and Mining, “IFC and Lonmin—Digging Deep for Development,” www1.ifc.org.
http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/industry_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/industries/oil,%20gas%20and%20mining/sectors/mining/mining_case_studies_lonmin_plc
http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/region__ext_content/regions/sub-saharan+africa/news/lonmin_video_close
50. Benchmarks Foundation, The Policy Gap: A Review of the Corporate Social Responsibility Programmes of the Platinum Mining Industry in the North West Province, 2007, 4, 9.
http://www.bench-marks.org.za/research/Rustenburg%20platinum%20research%20summary.pdf
51. Benchmarks Foundation, Communities in the Platinum Minefields, Policy Gap 6—A Review of Platinum Mining in the Bojanala District of the North West Province, A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Approach, 2012, iv.
http://www.bench-marks.org.za/research/rustenburg_review_policy_gap_final_aug_2012.pdf
52. Ibid., 72–76.
53. Ibid., 78.
54. World Bank, Speeches and Transcripts, “Press Conference with WBG President Jim Yong Kim, S. African Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan, and WB VP for Africa Makhtar Diop,” Pretoria, South Africa, September 6, 2012.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/09/06/press-conference-wbg-president-jim-yong-kim-safrican-finance-minister-pravin-gordhan-wb-vp-africa-makhtar-diop
55. Bretton Woods Project, “Unearthing the IFC’s Links to Mining Abuses,” Bretton Woods Update 82, News, October 3, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-571183
56. “Fifth Protester Dies from Peru Clash Over Newmont Mine,” Reuters, July 5, 2012; Cecelia Jasamie, “Peru Lifts State of Emergency Over Conga Mine,” September 2, 2012, mining.com.
http://in.reuters.com/article/2012/07/05/peru-newmont-idINL2E8I55FU20120705
http://www.mining.com/peru-lifts-state-of-emergency-over-conga-mine-11422/.
57. World Bank International Finance Corporation, Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman (CAO) Assessment Report Regarding Community and Civil Society Concerns in Relation to IFC’s Quellaveco Project ($3823), July 2012; International Finance Corporation, “Greystar: Summary of Proposed Investment,” Overview, Sponsor/Cost/Location, Project No. 27961; Comité por la Defensa del Agua y el Páramo de Santurbán, “Complaint Submitted to the Office of the Compliance Officer/Ombudsman (CAO), June 13, 2012, 4–6, 9–11,14, 27. See also: Bretton Woods Project, “Unearthing the IFC’s Links to Mining Abuses.”
http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/AssessmentReport_Quellaveco_July_2012_ENG.pdf
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/spiwebsite1.nsf/0/DF15489BFDE959D6852576BA000E2D0C
http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/EcoOroComplaint_ENG.pdf
58. Bretton Woods Project, “Unearthing the IFC’s Links to Mining Abuses;” International Finance Corporation, “Simandou III, Summary of Proposed Investment”; Barry Fitzgerald, “World Bank Shores Up Rio’s Hold Over Simandou Venture,” The Australian, May 8, 2012.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/spiwebsite1.nsf/ProjectDisplay/SPI_DP31067
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/mining-energy/world-bank-shores-up-rios-hold-over-simandou-venture/story-e6frg9df-1226349268872
59. Gordon Scott, “Oyu Tolgoi Copper and Gold Mine Associated Power Plant: Violations of IFC and World Bank Policies on Environmental Impacts and Criteria for Coal Projects,” Sierra Club, November 2012; Kate Shepard, “The World Bank’s Climate Hypocrisy,” Mother Jones, December 14, 2012.
http://action.sierraclub.org/site/DocServer/Tolgoi_assessment_Final.pdf?docID=11801
http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2012/12/world-bank-worries-about-climate-keeps-financing-coal
60. International Finance Corporation, “Oyu Tolgoi LLC, Summary of Investment Information”; Bank Information Center et al., “Complaint Filed Against Destructive Oyu Tolgoi Mine Being Considered for World Bank Support,” October 12, 2012; Herder Battsengel Lkhamdoorov, quoted in Kit Gillet, “Though Not Yet Open, a Huge Mine Is Transforming Mongolia’s Landscape,” New York Times, September 13, 2012.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/spiwebsite1.nsf/ProjectDisplay/SII29007
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/14/world/asia/oyu-tolgoi-mine-in-khanbogd-is-transforming-mongolia.html
61. Punan Chuhan-Pole et al., Africa’s Pulse: An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa’s Economic Future 6 (October 2012): 20.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRICA/Resources/Africas-Pulse-brochure_Vol6.pdf
62. Ibid.
63. Shantayanan Devarajan, World Bank Chief Economist for Africa, quoted in Mark Tran, “Africa’s Mineral Wealth Hardly Denting Poverty Levels, Says World Bank,” Guardian, October 5, 2012.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/oct/05/africa-mineral-wealth-poverty-world-bank
64. World Bank, “Massive Show of Support for Natural Capital Accounting at Rio Summit.”
65. Chuhan-Pole et al., Africa’s Pulse, 21.
66. Bretton Woods Project, “CSO Townhall with Jim Yong Kim and Christine Lagarde,” minutes of meeting, October 11, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-571410
67. Ibid.
68. Ibid.
69. Ibid.
70. Ibid.
71. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Assessing IFC’s Poverty Focus and Results (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2011), 39, 42, 43, 51.
http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/content/dam/ieg/IFC/ifc_poverty_full_eval.pdf
72. World Bank, “Remarks as Prepared for Delivery: World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim at the Annual Meeting Plenary Session,” Tokyo, Japan, October 11, 2012.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/10/12/remarks-world-bank-group-president-jim-yong-kim-annual-meeting-plenary-session
73. Ibid.
74. Bretton Woods Project, “World Bank-IMF Annual Meetings 2012,” Conclusions and Wrap-Up, News, October 16, 2012.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-571245#wrapup
75. World Bank, “Remarks as Prepared for Delivery: World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim at the Annual Meeting Plenary Session.”
 
Chapter 12 Notes
1. World Bank and Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must Be Avoided (Washington, DC: World Bank, November 2012), 11–12.
http://climatechange.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/Turn_Down_the_heat_Why_a_4_degree_centrigrade_warmer_world_must_be_avoided.pdf
2. Ibid.; see also: Reuters, “World Bank Climate Change Report Says ‘Turn Down the Heat’ on Warming Planet,” November 18, 2012.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/18/world-bank-climate-change-report_n_2156082.html
3. See chapter 7; see also: World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Development Results in Middle-Income Countries: An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Support (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007), xii, 20, 72.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/B849A54B45DCC529852574EF00690F96/$file/MIC_evaluation.pdf
4. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Development Results in Middle-Income Countries, xii, 20, 72; concerning “sequencing,” see chapter 6.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/B849A54B45DCC529852574EF00690F96/$file/MIC_evaluation.pdf
5. China Exim Bank, 2011 Annual Report, 9.
http://english.eximbank.gov.cn/annual/2011fm.shtml
6. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase II: The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 43–44.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCCPHASEII/Resources/cc2_full_eval.pdf
7. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase I: An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2009), xxxiv, xxxvi.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCLICHA/Resources/cc_full_eval.pdf
8. Paul A. Volcker et al., Independent Panel Review of the World Bank Group Department of Institutional Integrity (Washington, DC: September 13, 2007), 8, 13.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Volcker_Report_Sept._12,_for_website_FINAL.pdf
9. See: Raymond W. Baker, Capitalism’s Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market System (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005).
http://e-reading.by/bookreader.php/135381/Capitalism%2560s_Achilles_heel.pdf
10. Global Financial Integrity, “Tip Sheet: Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries Over the Decade Ending 2009,” December 15, 2011; see also: Dev Kar and Sarah Freitas, Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries Over the Decade Ending 2009, Global Financial Integrity, December 2011.
http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/IFF2011/tipsheet-illicit_financial_flows_from_developing_countries_over_the_decade_ending_2009.pdf
11. See: Global Financial Integrity, “Tip Sheet: Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries Over the Decade Ending 2009.”
12. Raymond Baker, “Letter from the Director,” in Dev Kar, The Drivers and Dynamics of Illicit Financial Flows from India: 1948–2008, Global Financial Integrity, November 2010, iii.
http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/india/gfi_india.pdf
13. Astrophysicists think that more than 70 percent of the cosmos consists of invisible dark energy and matter. See: NASA Science Astrophysics, “Dark Energy, Dark Matter,”
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy/
14. For official development-assistance flows, see: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), “Development: Aid to Developing Countries Falls Because of Global Recession,” Chart 2: Components of DAC Donors Net ODA, April 4, 2012.
http://www.oecd.org/dac/aidstatistics/50060310.pdf
15. Baker, Capitalism’s Achilles Heel, 237.
16. See, e.g.: Global Financial Integrity, Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development, “Trade Mispricing,” and “Beneficial Ownership.”
http://www.financialtaskforce.org/issues/trade-mispricing/
http://www.financialtaskforce.org/issues/beneficial-ownership/
17. Baker, Capitalism’s Achilles Heel, 257.
18. World Bank Operational Procedure 10.04, “Economic Evaluation of Investment Operations,” September 1994, paragraph 4, in World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 55.
http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/E9307D4D4A786515852577D6005BE20D/$file/cba_full_report.pdf
19. Ibid., paragraph 7.
20. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects, 4.
21. Ibid., 5.
22. Ibid., 46.
23. Ibid.
24. Chairperson’s Summary: Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE), in World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects, 10, 11.
25. John A. Gould and Matthew S. Winters, “Petroleum Blues: The Political Economy of Resources and Conflict in Chad,” in Päivi Lujala and Siri Aas Rustad, High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding (New York: Earthscan, 2012), 333.
26. See chapter 3; see also: World Bank Quality Assurance Group, Portfolio Improvement Program, “Portfolio Improvement Program: Reviews of Sector Portfolios and Lending Instruments: A Synthesis” (draft internal report), April 22, 1997, 15.
27. David A. Phillips, Reforming the World Bank: Twenty Years of Trial—and Error (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 81–82.
28. Abhihit Banerjee (MIT), Angus Deaton (Princeton), Nora Lustig (UNDP), Ken Rogoff (Harvard), An Evaluation of World Bank Research 1998–2005, September 24, 2006, 5, 6, 20–21, 126–27; see also: Eon Callan, “World Bank ‘Uses Doubtful Evidence to Push Policies,’” Financial Times, December 22, 2012.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEC/Resources/84797-1109362238001/726454-1164121166494/RESEARCH-EVALUATION-2006-Main-Report.pdf
http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/a3433812-9160-11db-b71a-0000779e2340.html#axzz2BmTnCUr1
29. Kate Bayliss, Ben Fine, and Elisa van Waeyenberge, The Political Economy of Development: The World Bank, Neoliberalism, and Development Research (London: Pluto Press, 2011); Bretton Woods Project, “Evaluations Suggest IMF, World Bank Research Ideologically Driven,” Update 77, September 14, 2011.
http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-568905
30. Jessica Lecroy, “An Evaluation of World Bank Research: 1998–2005,” Foreign Affairs, January 2007.
http://www.cfr.org/world-bank/evaluation-world-bank-research-1998-2005/p12470
31. Robert B. Zoellick, “Why We Still Need the World Bank: Looking Beyond Aid,” Foreign Affairs 19, no. 2 (March-April 2012): 75.
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137243/robert-b-zoellick/why-we-still-need-the-world-bank
32. Publish What You Fund, “The World Bank Demands Open Data in Google Mapping Project,” April 11, 2011.
http://www.publishwhatyoufund.org/updates/news/world-bank-demands-open-data-google-mapping-project/
33. Nancy Birdsall, “From Zoellick to Kim: Three Seedlings to Nourish,” Global Development: Views from the Center, Center for Global Development, May 17, 2012.
http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2012/05/from-zoellick-to-kim-three-seedlings-to-nourish.php
34. Zoellick, “Why We Still Need the World Bank,” 76.
35. Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: Public Affairs, 2011), 15.
36. Ibid., 46, 58, 86–87.
37. Ibid., 305.
38. Ibid., 257–58; see also: Wildlife Extra, “Rare Iranian Salamander in Danger of Extinction Due to Internet Pet Trade,” March 2010, wildlifeextra.com.
http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/kaiser-newt.html#cr
39. World Bank Group Independent Evaluation Group, Global Program Review: Multi-Donor Trust Fund for the Extractive Industries Transparency Review (Washington, DC: World Bank Group IEG, February 18, 2011), vii, xvi.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGLOREGPARPROG/Resources/GPR_EITI.pdf
40. Morozov, The Net Delusion, 306.
41. Nancy Birdsall, “The World Bank and Climate Change: Forever a Big Fish in a Small Pond?” Center for Global Development Policy Paper 007, July 2012.
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/1426335_file_Birdsall_Big_Fish_Small_Pond_final.pdf
42. Ibid., 26.
43. See chapter 10; see also: World Bank, “Investment Lending Reform: Concept Note,” 4, 6; World Bank, Operations Policy and Country Services, “Moving Ahead on Investment Lending Reform: Risk Framework and Implementation Support,” September 3, 2009, 16.
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/09/09/000333037_20090909235811/Rendered/PDF/502850BR0Box3410only10SecM200910442.pdf
44. See chapter 6; see also: Kyriakos Varvaressos, “The Concept of a World Bank,” International Bank Notes 5, no. 7, June 25, 1951 (IBRD/IDA Archives, Box No. 19), 4.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWSLETTERS/Resources/WBAnniversary.pdf
45. See: Export Development Corporation Canada, “Compliance Officer,” edc.ca; World Bank Group CAO, “About the CAO: Partners, Independent Accountability Mechanisms.”
http://www.edc.ca/EN/About-Us/Management-and-Governance/Compliance-Officer/Pages/default.aspx
46. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Safeguards and Sustainability Policies in a Changing World: An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010), 37–38.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSAFANDSUS/Resources/Safeguards_eval.pdf
47. See chapter 6; see also: Nii Ashie Kotey and Poku Adusei, “The Newmont and AngloGold Mining Projects,” in Sheldon Leader and David M. Ong, Global Project Finance, Human Rights, and Sustainable Development (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 489; Nirmalya Choudhury, Sustainable Dam Development in India: Between Global Norms and Local Practices, Discussion Paper 10, Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik ISSN 1860-0441 (Bonn: Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, 2010), 27–28.
http://indiagovernance.gov.in/files/DP_10.2010.pdf
48. Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Alastair Smith, The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior Is Almost Always Good Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2011), vii, 181.
49. Between 1945 and 2011 India had borrowed $88.7 billion from the Bank, far ahead of China ($49.6 billion), Brazil ($50.0 billion), and Indonesia ($43.3 billion); see: World Bank, Annual Report 2011, “IBRD and IDA Cumulative Lending by Country/Fiscal 1945–2011.”
50. Paul Rogers, “India’s 21st Century War,” Sustainable Security, November 2009, citing Prakash Nanda, “India’s Deadliest War Within,” UPI India Online, November 4, 2009; Jim Yardley, “Maoist Rebels Widen Deadly Reach Across India,” New York Times, November 1, 2009; Sunil Raman, “Leak Reveals India Maoist Threat,” BBC News, Delhi, September 21, 2009; Arundhati Roy, “The Heart of India Is Under Attack,” Guardian, October 30, 2009.
http://www.opendemocracy.net/paul-rogers/india%E2%80%99s-21st-century-war
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/01/world/asia/01maoist.html?pagewanted=all
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8266550.stm
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/oct/30/mining-india-maoists-green-hunt
51. Roy, “The Heart of India Is Under Attack;” Rogers, “India’s 21st Century War.”
52. Rogers, “India’s 21st Century War.”
53. Aristotle, The Politics, trans. T. A. Sinclair (London: Penguin Books, 1962), book I, chap. ix, 84–85.
54. Kenneth Rogoff, “Rethinking the Growth Imperative,” Project Syndicate, January 2, 2012.
http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/rethinking-the-growth-imperative
55. George Soros, The Age of Fallibility: Consequences of the War on Terror (New York: Public Affairs, 2006), 102; Hans Küng, A Global Ethic for Global Politics and Economics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 204.
56. Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, vol. 1 (1817; repr., Washington, DC: Regnery, 1997), 63–64.
 
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