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James A Estes

After spending most of his career as a research scientist with the US Geological Survey, James A. Estes is currently Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Trophic Cascades

Trophic Cascades

Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature

Trophic cascades—the top-down regulation of ecosystems by predators—are an essential aspect of ecosystem function and well-being. Trophic cascades are often drastically disrupted by human interventions—for example, when wolves and cougars are...