Using international law and organizations to manage marine resources sustainably
Lee A. Kimball
Our oceans are slowly dying, and the instruments of governance are inadequate to stop it. The international dimensions of ocean problems loom larger as we learn more about threats to marine species and ecosystems - invasive species are transported by international shipping, oceans fill with persistent organic pollutants, and nutrients from sewage and fertilizers cause excessive growth of marine plants. These challenges require that governments agree on commitments and common programs, in consultation with other stakeholders. This report evaluates the effectiveness of international agreements and organizations and recommends numerous improvements. It includes a series of tables and maps, which can be easily updated. The tables present a problem-oriented summary of global and regional legal instruments and an indication of the scientific, technical, and legal guidance offered by international bodies. The maps demonstrate geographic relationships in eight ocean regions -- among regional marine and regional fisheries conventions, large marine ecosystems, major river basins, marine protected areas, and national jurisdiction.