For many people, planning is an attractive profession because it deals with a wide variety of subjects in contexts as diverse as the population of a community. Most planners work for public agencies, but some work in private firms, often with architects, landscape architects, and engineers; in planning consulting firms; or with private businesses such as utilities or development companies. There are also a number of planners who work for nonprofit corporations and foundations. Whether in the public or private sector, planning projects alone or as part of a team of other professionals from other fields, most planners are involved in helping communities and others prepare for the future and manage the change that comes with it. The American Planning Association’s slogan is “Making Great Communities Happen,” a reflection of the ideals of most planners.

Often planners come to the profession through very personal experiences such as planning activities at the neighborhood level or working with a special interest group on a particular community issue. Others see it as a profession with opportunities to make a difference in the world or in an individual community. Whatever the initial reasons for their career choice, planners soon realize there is a wide range of jobs to be done. An understanding of the career possibilities can help the future planner to prepare appropriately.

The Profession of Planning: AICP Definition

The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) uses the following criteria to define professional planning.

  1. Influencing public decision making in the public interest. Recommending specific actions or choices to elected/appointed officials, private sector representatives, or others regarding public decisions concerned with social, economic, or physical change in the public interest.
  2. Employing an appropriately comprehensive point of view. Appropriate comprehensiveness requires: (1) looking at the consequences (e.g., physical/environmental, social, economic/financial, governmental) of making a proposed decision; (2) conforming a proposed decision to the larger context in which it will occur; and (3) treating multiple policies, actions, or systems simultaneously when interlinkages are too great to treat separately. It does not require looking at everything at once if the above three criteria are met with a proposal, plan, or program of narrower scope.
  3. Applying a planning process appropriate to the situation. This means a process which is appropriate to its place and situation in: (1) the number and order of its steps—e.g., problem/opportunity definition, goal setting, generating alternate strategies, strategy choice, implementation, evaluation; (2) its orientation to the future, to value change, and to resource constraints; (3) its quality of research and analysis; and (4) its format of policy, program, or plan proposal.
  4. Involving a professional level of responsibility and resourcefulness. This means initiative, judgment, substantial involvement, and personal accountability for defining and preparing significant substantive elements of planning activities.1

Where Planners Work

Bureau of Labor Statistics data from 2007 found that 66 percent of planners worked for local governments, a little more than 16 percent worked for architectural and engineering firms, about nine percent worked for state governments, three percent for other types of consulting firms and one percent for federal agencies.2 A 2008 survey by the American Planning Association found similar results from a smaller sample; in the APA survey, 67 percent worked for government agencies (primarily local government), 25 percent for consulting firms and eight percent for “other.”3

The statistics on private employment are somewhat misleading. While consulting firms employed 25 percent of the planners reporting, many of those firms consult partly or primarily to local governments. For larger communities, those firms typically provided specialized services, such as updating comprehensive plans or preparing traffic studies or impact fee ordinances. Some smaller jurisdictions have continuing service agreements with consulting firms, using those firms instead of in-house planning staff. Thus, the total percentage of employment that focuses on planning in the public sector approaches and may exceed 80 percent.

This pattern of employment is perfectly logical in the context of planning today, as described in the first four parts of this book. Most comprehensive planning and implementation take place at the level of local government; consequently, most planners work for local governments. Cities and counties of all sizes need to plan, so there are jobs in communities of many different sizes. There is not much regional planning in this country, and there are equally few planning jobs with regional agencies.

What Planners Do

What attracts many people to the profession of planning is the opportunity to fulfill a number of roles. Some planners are focused on the research side of planning, often acting as technical analysts. Others develop programs within specific areas of concern, such as land use or urban design, while still others may focus on social changes. Many planners find themselves, at some point in their careers, in the role of manager or educator. A significant proportion of planners will work in both the public and the private sectors over the course of a career.  The Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning provides this description and checklist

Planning is a systematic, creative way to influence the future of neighborhoods, cities, rural and metropolitan areas, and even the country and the world. Urban and regional planners use their professional skills to serve communities facing social, economic, environmental, and cultural challenges by helping community residents to:

  • develop ways to preserve and enhance their quality-of-life;
  • find methods to protect the natural and built environment;
  • identify policies to promote equity and equality;
  • structure programs to improve services to disadvantaged communities, and;
  • determine methods to deal effectively with growth and development of all kinds.4

Land Use and Zoning

Land-use planners, especially those who create comprehensive or strategic plans, review site plans, work at the front desk of planning departments, or work with developers in urban design, are involved in land-use and zoning issues; almost all planning decisions ultimately affect the use of land. In addressing these issues, planners try to implement the comprehensive plan through the administration of such tools as zoning and subdivision regulations.

The most obvious ways that planners conduct land-use planning is through the development of plans for land-use patterns, including separation of land use into districts to meet housing needs, create parks and recreation opportunities, furnish highways and transportation systems, create public facilities such as schools and hospitals, and seek means of development while protecting the built and natural environments. This means that land-use planners deal with both developed and undeveloped land.

While land use is affected by daily decisions through the permitting process, those decisions should be based on previous long-range planning efforts that looked at the potential uses of land. In the comprehensive planning process, planners use their technical knowledge, including the analysis of existing and potential problems, to influence policies that will affect the physical needs of the community. This sometimes places planners in the function of mediators since land-use decisions often bring out conflicting community interests.

Some local governments divide land-use planners into two groups: “current” planners, who conduct reviews of proposed projects, and “long-range” or “advance” planners who assist in preparation of planning and policy documents.

For descriptions of the types of issues addressed by land-use planners, see chapters 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10 through 14.

Housing and Community Development

As the discussion in Chapter 21 indicates, most housing in this country is provided by private homebuilders, with limited public involvement.  Thus, one aspect of planning for housing is simply analyzing demographic patterns to project future housing needs and to compare those to the trends of local housing production.   Such an approach may be adequate to address the housing needs of those who have choices.  In planning for housing for those who are disadvantaged, however, it becomes important to consider the location of proposed housing in relation to public transportation, shopping and child-care services Ideally, plans for meeting low-income housing needs are part of broader community development plans. The purpose of such plans is to improve the standard of living and provide opportunities for those citizens who lack resources and opportunities.

Planners in housing and community development may work on programs that develop housing opportunities for the homeless, provide low-interest loans for mortgages, or establish job training centers or design programs for the elderly. While most communities have planners devoted to housing and social planning, many planners in this field work with community development corporations and other nonprofit organizationsWhether in the public or the private sector, these planners focus on issues inherent in our modern society that touch on the quality of life for all residents in the United States today. Chapter 21 discusses the role of planning and government in addressing housing issues.

Health and Human Services

Like planners working in housing and community development, planners in health and human services are involved in creating strategies for residents lacking resources and opportunities. These planners create health and social services programs focused on upgrading the standard of living for residents. They are involved in establishing programs that address such issues as drug treatment and child abuse. While they are often focused on low-income groups, these health and human services planners often deal with issues found throughout the community.

These issues are not limited to our most urban centers. Health and human services planning is also vital in rural areas; many rural communities lack health facilities and important social services. Planners often look at means of attracting the facilities and professionals to rural areas, as well as finding ways to deal with local issues. For example, a mounting problem for many rural areas is the lack of public transportation available to citizens such as the elderly who do not have the ability or the means to provide their own transportation to such services as local clinics.

Health and human services is tied to physical planning but also goes well beyond the most obvious planning needs. These planners are typically found in the public sector at all levels of government from the local human services planner to individuals within such federal departments as Housing and Urban Development and Health and Human Services. This subject generally falls within the scope of social planning, a topic that is discussed in the introduction to this book, as well as in Chapters 19 and 21.

Chapter 3 introduced the concept of planning communities that encourage healthy lifestyles.  As this book goes into production, there are few jobs that focus specifically on such work; most planners who try to address those issues have more general responsibilities in land-use and/or transportation planning.

Transportation Planning

Transportation planners are involved in planning for the movement of people and goods. Their efforts affect land use, economic development, social opportunities, and the quality of life and the environment. Since transportation, like land-use planning, directly affects all activities, it involves technical and social understanding. In the past, transportation planners have focused on the efficient movement of goods and people, but it has become increasingly apparent that transportation influences urban design, the environment, and economic and social opportunities.

While roadways are the most obvious area of transportation planning, the field also involves airports, trains, rapid transit, buses, bike lanes, and pedestrian ways. Often transportation planning involves concurrently planning for many different modes while ensuring equitable access to these different modes. Social issues such as accommodating the physically challenged and the elderly on public transit are a significant part of transportation planning. This combination of technical and social expertise makes transportation one of the more challenging fields of planning today. Transportation planners are found at all levels of government, as well as in the private sector. Transportation is one of the infrastructure issues covered in chapter 8. Most transportation planning jobs are found in departments that receive most of their funding for road-building projects; thus, even for planners whose primary interest is in alternate means of transportation, a strong background in issues dealing with roads and vehicles is important.

Economic Development Planning

Economic development planning focuses on increasing employment and income opportunities. This involves attracting business, retaining existing business and industry, and assisting small and beginning businesses. The focus is on creating a healthy economy that provides employment opportunities and builds and sustains a strong tax base. These planners are directly involved in community development through the use of human, physical, natural, and financial resources.

These planners work for all levels of government, including the federal and state levels where they work for such agencies and departments as the Department of Labor and the Small Business Administration. Even the Department of Housing and Urban Development is involved in economic development planning through its Community Development Block Grants and other competitive funds. States also assist local communities in economic development efforts through grants, loans, bonds, and tax incentives. One area of assistance often overlooked is that of state grants and loans given to communities for infrastructure development, making it possible for local communities to attract business and industry by meeting such infrastructure needs as adequate roads and airports. Economic development planners are also employed in the nonprofit sector by such entities as chambers of commerce, often establishing public-private partnerships for attracting and retaining businesses and industries in a community.

Economic development planning requires technical expertise in assessing economic-base and growth trends, analyzing businesses and industries, and developing feasibility projections and financing mechanisms. Thus, these planners bring technical, marketing, and financial expertise to their jobs. At the local level, economic development planners often provide marketing and promotion assistance in efforts to attract business. They also participate in negotiations for final business development. The impacts of economic development are dealt with by other areas of planning but are not ignored by economic development planners, since how these issues are met determines the environment that will attract or deter new businesses. Planning for economic development is the topic of chapter 22.

Environmental Planning

Many communities base their comprehensive plans in part on the analysis of existing environmental conditions, with the intent of guiding development away from floodplains, landslide hazards, wetlands, and valuable habitat.  Some communities now use “green infrastructure” (see chapter 17) as one of the backbones of a plan.  In communities that use such approaches to planning, environmental planners play a central role in shaping local plans.

Other nvironmental planners focus on minimizing the impacts of human activity on the natural environment. These planners are found at all levels of government and in the private and nonprofit sectors working on a range of issues. Many environmental planners deal with environmental impact assessments and environmental land-use plans and regulations. The range of roles goes from the local level and such tasks as creating floodplain ordinances and assessing the environmental impact of federal projects, to the federal level and such tasks as assessing the impact of tourism on national parks and supervising mitigation of hazardous waste sites. With increasing environmental regulations from the federal government down to the local level and mounting stress on the environment from increasing growth, often in environmentally sensitive areas, the demands on environmental planners are growing.

Environmental problems often require extensive intergovernmental and public and private cooperation; special interest groups are becoming increasingly active in environmental issues, as well. Thus, the range of environmental planning employment goes through all levels of government as well as the private and nonprofit sectors. The role of planners in dealing with environmental issues is discussed in chapters 3, 4, 7, 9, and 17.

Urban Design

Urban design planners combine physical design with urban policy making. Their work focuses on creating unified physical plans for subdivisions, downtown revitalization plans, and plans for shopping malls and corridors. Urban design planning has changed over the years, with the increasing importance placed on the psychological and sociological effects of the physical environment on the quality of life of citizens. In response to this recognition of the importance of the physical setting on human activities and behavior, urban design planners are having to find ways to involve the public in their proposals and designs. Today urban designers are more involved than ever before in development controls such as zoning and in the different ways of financing projects such as public-private partnerships. For example, these planners have been leading the way in finding ways to create sustainable communities through design and changes in development codes and regulations.

There are many good examples of publicly sponsored urban design in the United States, although there are few if any examples of whole communities that reflect a unified design theme. Some examples of the influence of urban design include the Inner Harbor area of Baltimore, the River Walk in San Antonio, Chicago’s Lakeshore Drive and Michigan Avenue, and the monumental core of Washington, D.C. The choices made in the physical design of these areas clearly has had a significant impact on the public perception as well as the functional organization of these cities. Another area in which urban designers play a significant role is in historic districts. The desire to maintain and enhance areas of historic and design significance has become increasingly strong in the last few decades, and urban designers have played an important role in leading these efforts, particularly in districts that have new development.

Many urban designers work with private firms that plan large-scale projects for major developers.  Others work with local governments, often focusing on community gateways, major corridors, transit nodes and downtown areas.  Urban design issues most frequently arise in the context of planning for special areas, such as historic districts, downtowns, and important corridors. All of those are discussed in chapter 19.

International Development Planning

As we become an increasingly global society, the role of planners in international settings continues to evolve. International development planners are involved in creating strategies for regional and national development in international settings. With the recognition of dwindling nonrenewable resources, the need to evaluate strategies for rational growth and development in many developing countries is growing.

International development planners work primarily in the public sector in national governments in less developed countries and in international agencies such as those under the United Nations. While there are some international development planners at the federal and state levels such as the U.S. Department of Commerce, as yet they are not found at the local level of government. There are an increasing number of private consulting firms and engineering and architecture firms that employ international development planners.

Job Opportunities

The Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2006 provided this prognosis for the field:

Faster than average employment growth is projected for urban and regional planners.  Most new jobs will be in affluent, rapidly expanding communities.  Job prospects will be best for those with masters degrees and strong computer skills.

Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow 15 percent from 2006 to 2016, faster than average for all occupations.  Employment growth will be driven by the need for state and local governments to provide public services such as regulation of commercial development, the environment, housing, and land use and development for an expanding population….5

Many entry-level positions place individuals as the generalist planner—that professional whose work touches on many areas of planning. One of the most important things a new planner does early in a public-sector  career is to work “at the counter.” This is where planners most often meet the public. As long-time planning director Bruce McClendon has pointed out, the treatment of “customers” at the counter in the planning office has immense influence on the public’s perception of local government.6 Any function that brings planners into contact with the public is important in determining the success of all planning efforts and in citizens’ perceptions of planning. Customer service, regardless of who the customer is, is a key to good planning. For those planners beginning in nonprofit or private-sector positions, this is also a valuable lesson. While it is easy for planners to feel that they have the answers, since that is their training, it is important that the person being served be treated as the real authority.  Experience waiting tables or working in retail provides useful background in dealing with the variety of people likely to come to the planning counter over the course of a month.

Planning Salaries

The median salaries for planners have risen consistently over the last two decades.7 The median salary in the 2008 survey by the American Planning Association was $70,000.8 government ranging from about $45,000 for those with less than five years’ experience to more than $80,000 for those with more than twenty years’ experience.9 The highest salaries appear to be with the law firms and development firms. The broader survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported median earnings for planners of $56,630 in 2006;10 by 2007, the median found by BLS had moved up to $57,970, with a national mean of $60,480.11 Like other professions, there is a considerable difference between starting salaries and the median salaries of planners who have ten or more years of experience in the profession. Salaries are also dependent on where planners work. It is not surprising to find that the highest median salaries are also in states that have a higher cost of living than others, led by the District of Columbia, California and New Jersey.12 It is difficult to find other patterns from which one can draw reasonable conclusions. Clearly, the combination of seniority and education makes a big difference, and managers at a high level are generally paid better than those who work for them.

Besides location and experience, other factors contribute to an individual’s earning power, including education, level of responsibility, and employer. Some planners choose to remain in a particular location, even when it means remaining in the same job at a lower salary. Others work in the public sector for a period of time, then move into more lucrative employment in the private sector because of the expertise they have gained on the job in the public sector, while others remain in the public sector and rise to higher positions.

A significant factor in planning salaries in education. Advanced degrees are preferred by employers, although master’s degrees in related fields such as geography, engineering, and architecture or equivalent work experience are sometimes acceptable. Often someone with a bachelor’s degree from planning and related programs can gain an entry-level job, but it is usually necessary for such an employee to acquire an advanced degree to open better employment opportunities in the profession.

There several Internet sites with planning  jobs.  The American Planning Association provides a “Jobs Online” service13 that has replaced an earlier jobs newsletter.  Planetizen, a proprietary website, includes job listings.14 Many of the job listings on these national sites are for positions requiring experience; many entry level positions are advertised locally and/or through state chapters of the American Planning Association.15 Some, such as Jobs in Government,14 are very specific in their information, while others, such as Job Mart,15 focus on a range of planning opportunities. Information is available, but an important source of employment information is the networking that planners do, particularly at the annual national conference. Belonging to the local, state, and national chapters of the American Planning Association can help in forming a network to assist in finding that entry-level job and in finding support once a part of the planning profession.

Note that the salary data given in this section are somewhat out of date. Anyone considering entering the field should check current job listings and check latest copy of the APA salary report, which is updated biennially (but available to members only).

Working Conditions

Planning is a profession, not a job.  Like other professions, planning has demands that go beyond a “normal” 40-hour week.  Many planning commissions and governing bodies meet at night. Planners who facilitate citizen participation—and most do at some point in their careers—will have other night meetings for that purpose. Night meetings are simply part of a planning career.

In other respects, however, a planning career has significant advantages over careers in many other professions. Most local government office buildings are locked on weekends, leaving planners free to pursue their lives, while their colleagues in architecture, engineering, and law may be working at their respective offices. Local government generally provides more predictable employment, with civil service protection, than private professional firms. Benefit packages are typically attractive.

Working for government can be both satisfying and frustrating. Presumably, those who work for the government are seeking to create better communities (or states or nations). Citizens, however, are sometimes cynical about the motivations of government employees. Government officials are often the bearers of bad news-such as Mr. Jones’s new house is too close to the side lot line; there is nothing the city can do to stop the construction of the cellular phone tower across from the nature center; or the new waste disposal site has to go someplace—and people rarely greet the messenger who brings bad news with open arms.

On the other hand, planners who believe in working with citizens, who believe that government can provide “customer service” of the sort that the best private enterprises offer, and who truly want to work for the public interest can have a very satisfying career.

Related Fields

Planners work with professionals from several related fields: engineering, landscape architecture, architecture, and law. The nature of those fields defines some boundaries of planning, as well as suggesting the nature of the activities in which planners engage.

Landscape Architecture

Landscape architects deal with the land and the natural systems on it. The field evolved from landscape designers who created the grounds for estates. Landscape architects have played major roles in creating such important urban spaces as Central Park in New York, Boston’s Fenway, and Chicago’s museum complex, on the site of the Columbian Exposition of 1893.  Today, landscape architects deal with the land at many levels. Some still design elaborate grounds and gardens for public facilities and even some private residences. Others design golf courses, parks, and recreation areas. Landscape architects also deal with planning issues from an ecological perspective, a topic discussed in chapter 2.

Landscape architects are licensed or registered in most states, but not all. Some states require registration or a license to engage in certain types of professional practice, while others limit the use of the title “landscape architect” to those who are registered.

Landscape architects and planners often work together. Many large planning agencies include landscape architects on their staffs, and a number of consulting firms include both planners and landscape architects, often working in the same group. The professional society for landscape architects is the American Society of Landscape Architects16, and its members often use its initials after their name to indicate that affiliation.

Civil Engineering

There are many branches of engineering, but the one with which planners interact the most is civil engineering. It is civil engineering professionals who typically design roads and airports, sewer plants, and water distribution systems. Engineers sometimes prepare comprehensive plans, usually with an emphasis on functional values—ensuring that the community is designed so that the road, sewer, water, and other infrastructure systems all work well.

Civil engineers are licensed in all states. A professional engineer typically uses the initials “P.E.” after her or his name. The professional society that represents the field is the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)17. Some engineering firms include planners and landscape architects. Because of concerns about supervision of work requiring licensure, it is unusual for an engineer to work under a planner or a firm managed by a planner.

Architecture

Architects design buildings. Some design other things, but the emphasis of architectural practice is on the design of enclosed spaces for human uses. Many architects practice in firms consisting entirely of architects and support staff, or architects, interior designers, and support staff. Others are part of architectural and engineering firms, often called A&E for short. Architects and planners are sometimes found in the same firm; such firms usually also include engineers and landscape architects.

State laws require registration of architects in every state, and there is a national registration exam that is widely accepted among the states. The professional society for architects is the American Institute of Architects (AIA)18, and its members also typically use its initials after their names.

Law

Many of the implementation techniques for plans are ordinances and other forms of local laws. Thus, planners have a good deal of contact with lawyers. Although most people probably think of lawyers in court, many lawyers represent their clients in obtaining approvals from government agencies—including approvals for land development projects.

Lawyers are licensed in every state. Their national professional association is the American Bar Association19. Planners working for government agencies will work regularly with staff or outside lawyers for those agencies. Historically, the legal profession’s own code of ethics has limited lawyers’ ability to participate in multidisciplinary firms, but that is changing. Today, a handful of law firms include planners, and several advertise regularly in  Planning magazine.

Urban Design

Urban design is a field of practice, not a defined profession. It is the substantive area of practice in which planners, landscape architects, architects, and engineers all interact. Urban design deals with the streetscapes in which buildings exist, bringing together planners and architects; engineers are concerned with the same streetscapes from the perspective of traffic movement. Urban design also addresses public spaces, involving landscape architects as well as planners and architects. Zoning and other codes administered by planners contain many elements that directly affect design, but specific design proposals for projects often come from architects and landscape architects.

Relationship of Other Professions to Planning

Planners cannot practice law, or architecture, or landscape architecture, or engineering because they are not licensed to do so. On the other hand, in forty-eight states20 planning is not a licensed field, and lawyers, architects, landscape architects, and engineers can all engage in aspects of planning practice.

The professional advantage that planners have over professionals from these other fields is the emphasis on comprehensiveness. Each of the other fields contains within it a set of values that is a good deal narrower than those represented by a good comprehensive plan. With its comprehensive approach, good planning can include and bring together the expertise of all of those other fields—and it is only planners are specifically educated to do that.

Conclusion

Planning is—first, second, and last—about people. The future is an abstract concept. The role of the planner is to help people collectively deal with that abstraction and define a future for their community. The plans will shape future roads and parks, neighborhoods and open space, downtowns and suburbs, farmlands and wetlands.  Many of the topics covered in this book – land-use plans, zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, transportation plans and GIS systems are simply tools—tools for planners and tools for communities. Ultimately, what matters is how they serve the community and the people who live there.

End Matter

Further Reading

Brophy, Paul C., and Alice Shabecoff. A Guide to Careers in Community Development. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001.  A road map for students, volunteers, professionals, or anyone wishing to become involved in the dynamic field of community development.

Waldon, Roger S. Planners and Politics : Helping Communities Make Decisions. 1st ed. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 2006.  The eight planners profiled in this book have mastered the art of working within the political system to get things done. Their success stories are object lessons in building support for initiatives while maintaining credibility and integrity.

Zucker, Paul C. What Your Planning Professors Forgot to Tell You : 117 Lessons Every Planner Should Know. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 1999.  Veteran and beginning planners alike will enjoy and benefit from this light-hearted yet edifying retrospective, delivered with a sense of humor and spirit.

References

Choosing a Career in Urban and Regional Planning,” Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, 2008.  A brief guidebook for people who are considering a professional planning degree program. 

Planning Magazine. Published monthly by the American Planning Association, Chicago. Contains current news of the planning field. Sent free to members (including student members) of APA and, by subscription, to many libraries.

Footnotes

  1. American Institute of Certified Planners, “Professional Planning Experience,” http://www.planning.org/certification/experience.htm (accessed January 2009). 
  2. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook (Washington: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008). , available here; BLS uses the term “urban and regional planner” to describe the field. 
  3. Monica Groh, “Apa/Aicp Planners Salary Survey,” American Planning Association. 
  4. Choosing a Career in Urban and Regional Planning,” Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, 2008. 
  5. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook
  6. Bruce W. McClendon, Customer Service in Local Government : Challenges for Planners and Managers (Chicago: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1992). 
  7. Groh, “Apa/Aicp Planners Salary Survey.”  It is interesting to compare the data to the published data in Marya Morris, 1995 Planners’ Salaries and Employment Trends, Planning Advisory Service Report No. 464, Chicago: American Planning Association (1996). 
  8. Ibid. 
  9. Ibid. 
  10. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook ; BLS uses the term “urban and regional planner” to describe the field. 
  11. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2007, 19-305, Urban and Regional Planners. (accessed January 2009). 
  12. Groh, “Apa/Aicp Planners Salary Survey.” 
  13. http://www.planning.org/jobs/ (accessed January 2009). 
  14. http://www.planetizen.com/jobs 
  15. Go to http://www.planning.org/chapters/ for a list of chapters, with website and other contact information. 
  16. http://www.asla.org 
  17. http://www.asce.org 
  18. http://www.aia.org 
  19. http://www.abanet.org 
  20. Only New Jersey licenses planners; Michigan requires registration to use the title “community planner”.