Wolverine taking the bait at a DNA study hair snare to study connectivity within the matrix in Banff. Photo by Anthony Clevenger, Banff National Park. Used with permission.Ecological resilience has great bearing on carnivore conservation. In the 1970s, ecologist C. S. (a.k.a. “Buzz”) Holling first defined resilience as the ability of ecosystems to absorb disturbance and still persist in their basic structure and function. With regard to the large carnivores (or any species), ecologists measure resilience by looking at how connected their populations are. They measured resilience via population connectivity, because of the importance of genetics to the health and vigor of populations. Why is resilience so important? Climate change, widely evident worldwide, will increase habitat fragmentation and shift plant community ranges. Today winters are measurably shorter than thirty years ago, the glaciers disappearing apace. Snow-dependent species like the wolverine (Gulo gulo) will be hit hardest by climate change as they find their habitat shrinking to the highest peaks. Carnivore ecologist John Weaver says, “Nowadays, climate change has put such an exclamation mark on Holling’s breakthrough concept about the importance of resilience. The question is how are these animals going to sustain their resiliency into a very different future? Big, intact, well-connected landscapes offer the best opportunity for animals to move and find their new ‘normal’ in terms of environmental conditions.” To apply the concept of resilience, corridor ecologists such as Jodi Hilty begin by defining populations at three nested levels. At the smallest scale we find the individual organism, and at the next scale the local population, also called a deme. At the largest scale lies the metapopulation, also known as a “population of populations.” The space between local populations is the matrix. Resilience accrues from the above three population levels and an organism’s ability to move well within the matrix.